Sure, you’ve seen the bubble letters and bright colors that decorate walls, poles and train cars. You may have even heard it by different names. Street art. Vandalism. Tagging. Columbia even has an area dedicated to the craft called Graffiti Beach in Flat Branch Park.
But when and where did it start? Who started it? Why is it there? And what are the legal issues? This quick list will give you a glimpse into the historical and cultural context of graffiti.
1. Graffiti as it’s known today began in the late 1960s in Philadelphia.
It was primarily used to make political statements and mark street gang territory.
2. One of the first known graffiti artists was called Cornbread.
His name is Darryl McCray, but he was known by his tagging name, Cornbread.
3. Many graffiti artists tag their work.
“Tagging” is a way for street artists to sign their name anonymously. They often use random words or symbols and then embellish them with stars or crowns.
4. The Style Wars began in the 1970s, which introduced the concept of bombing.
Graffiti artists created bigger and bigger pieces in an attempt to achieve fame. They would often “bomb,” or “hit,” one area, which meant painting many surfaces in an area. For the sake of time, they often threw up tags instead of complex pieces.
5. The Philadelphia Anti-Graffiti Network was founded in 1984 to fight the spread of graffiti.
The agency is backed by the city of Philadelphia and provides resources to businesses who need help eradicating vandalism of their property. They also have a Mural Arts Program which allows youth to express themselves by creating murals throughout the city. Similar agencies have popped up in cities around the U.S.
6. While most laws surrounding graffiti are local, there is a federal law prohibiting railroad vandalism.
The law is a strategy to prevent trespassing on railroad property and vandalism affecting railroad safety. Their main concern in creating this law was safety.
7. Graffiti is one of the four elements of hip hop.
The other three are DJing, emceeing and break dancing. Some have added on a fifth, which is knowledge.
8. Subway graffiti died out for the most part in the late 1980s due to heightened security.
The last subway train with a significant amount of graffiti on it was taken off the rails in 1989. It didn’t die out completely, however, and some artists took to freight trains.
9. A black book, or piece book, is a graffiti artist’s sketchbook.
It’s often closely guarded from authorities because it could be used as evidence in vandalism cases.
10. To keep up with the competition, graffiti artists created rubber stamps, stickers and stencils for more efficient tagging.
Some believed that this defied the true nature of graffiti, but at this point in the 1980s, everyone was focused on achieving fame.
In this article I will walk you through some basic Photoshop retouching skills. These 5 easy Photoshop tips for beginners will be a great start to learning to proces your photographs.
1. Learning Keyboard Shortcuts
Learning keyboard shortcuts will help you to speed up your processing workflow. There are few key shortcuts for different tools in the tool bar. A few of the most widely used shortcuts are:
- V = move tool
- F – toggles through display screen modes
- Space bar = temporary hand key
- B – paintbrush tool
- D – sets the foreground/background colorss to default
- X – swaps between background and foreground color
- E – eraser tool
- S – stamp or cloning tool
- W – quick selection tool
- Ctrl+j – duplicates the selected layer
There are just few of the most regularly used Photoshop shortcuts. When you start using the program more, your knowledge of shortcuts will gradually increase. Once you are aware of the most used shortcuts retouching pace will be faster than ever.
2. Color Enhancing – Saturation versus Vibrance
Color is another domain you can try while enhancing your photographs. Generally when you are beginning in photography, enhancing the color of every image looks good, as if the colors are speaking out of the photographs. It will be lot more helpful if you can understand the difference between how saturation and vibrance works. Go to Image menu and choose Adjustment under the menu
As shown in the image to the right, select the Vibrance option. You will get two options under the menu – Vibrance and Saturation. Vibrance increases the saturation of less saturated colors. This option avoids yellow and orange skin tones. Basically vibrance works best for portraits.
On the other hand, saturation increases the intensity of all the colors in your image equally. This may not be a good option for portraits or peoples photos. What I can recommend is this: slowly start with vibrance for the color enhancement and use saturation later if you want to pump up the color more.
If you compare the two photos below, you will understand how vibrance is only responsible for increasing the intensity of less saturated colors, where as saturation increases the intensity of all colors equally.
3. Adding a Vignette
Vignetting is basically a technique to darken the edges of your frame so that the eyes move to the subject more easily. This procedure works best when you have a subject in the center. Our eyes tend to move towards the brighter part of the image and recede on the darker side. This technique will result in dark space around the subject.
4. Adding Sharpness and Details
Adding sharpness is another technique for beginners in Photoshop. This will make your image look more detailed. I would suggest detailing most of your images with appropriate values. But make sure you sharpen, or detail your images with a small value if you are going to upload images on Facebook because it compresses the images and adds some detail to make it took a bit sharper. So when an already sharpened image is uploaded in Facebook, there is a change of it looking too edgy.
- Step 1. Duplicate the selected layer with a keyboard shortcut Ctrl+J (PC) or Command+J oP MAC
- Step 2. Open the High Pass filter: Filter > Other > High Pass on the top layer
- Step 3. Apply an appropriate value (just to see the edges in the image) and click Okay
- Step 4. Change the blending mode of the top layer to Overlay
- Step 5. Adjust the opacity of that layer to your taste
5. Photoshop Filter Gallery
Filters are basically automated effects that you apply to your images with a few clicks. Filters can help you to achieve certain special effects or looks. There are various filters in Photoshop, which you can pick individually, each filter results in different effect when applied to different images. You an also apply more than one and stack them. Though I don’t use filters much, it’s good to explore if you are just starting out in Photoshop. Later, when you are more familiar with advanced tools and techniques you can try to create the similar effect from manual options and controls.
To apply a filter select the layer and go to Filter > Filter Gallery. Before you apply any filter in the gallery make sure to change your image to 8 bit. You can do that by going to Image > Mode > 8 bits/channel
I hope these 5 basic Photoshop tips will help you to retouch and enhance your photos. If you have others suitable for beginners please share in the comments below.
Sculpting can be a rewarding and therapeutic form of art making. Working with hands directly with medium is a unique experience. Unfortunately, many sculpting materials are expensive or not conducive for use by beginners. In this post, we’ll take a look at some sculpting materials that are easy to find, inexpensive, and most importantly – appropriate for beginners (and young artists).
Before we look at sculpting materials, let’s briefly discuss sculpting processes. There are basically two “umbrellas” sculpting processes fall under. These two “umbrellas” are additive processes and subtractive processes. Additive sculpting processes involve adding materials to “build up” the sculpture, where subtractive processes rely on the removal of the material to “reveal” the sculpture. Additive techniques include modeling and assemblage. Materials typically used for additive processes include clay, wax, and plasticine. An example of a subtractive processes is carving. Typical materials used for subtractive processes include wood, plaster, and marble.
Obviously, some of these materials may not practical for beginners. So, let’s take a look at a few that are.
Materials for Additive Sculpture Processes
Model Magic – Model Magic is made by Crayola. It is a non-toxic and inexpensive sculpting material that air dries. It can be painted with water-based paints when it is dry. It’s fairly sticky stuff and will adhere to an armature pretty well. Art snobs may turn their nose up at Model Magic, but it’s an interesting sculpting medium that’s perfect for beginners that want to have an experience with modeling without the mess or the expense.
Plasticine Clay – Plasticine clay is colored, oil-based clay. It’s what most of use think of when we think of modeling clay. Because it is oil-based, it will not dry out. Most plasticine clay is labeled as non-toxic, but I wouldn’t recommend using it with smaller children. It’s also pricey. If you are considering a larger sculpture, then plasticine clay may “break the bank”. But for smaller sculptures, maquettes, or just playing around, plasticine may be the way to go.
Polymer Clay – Polymer clay is actually PVC. Liquid is added to make it pliable enough to be formed and shaped. Pigment is added to the clay to give it its color and it comes in a wide variety of them. The more you work the polymer clay, the easier it is to work with. Small or weak hands may have some problems manipulating this modeling material when they first start working with it. Polymer clay can be baked in the oven to fix it into shape. This makes it a popular material for making small pieces of jewelry. Polymer clay, however is the most expensive modeling material on this list. You are pretty much limited to small sculptures with this material.
Air Dry Clay – There are a few companies that make air dry “clay”. Each of these products vary greatly in quality and price. For children, your best bet may be with Crayola Air Dry Clay. It’s very inexpensive, non-toxic, and can be painted when its dry. For more developed artists, AMACO Marblex Self-Hardening clay may be the way to go. It’s relatively inexpensive and can result in professional results.
Home Made Play Dough – My mom made me homemade play dough all the time growing up and I loved it. It was warm and mushy and she would make it any color that I wanted. It’s incredibly easy to make, non-toxic and fun. But this medium is pretty much for kids and open-minded adults. Don’t expect professional results from homemade play dough.
Materials for Subtractive Sculpture
Soap Sculpture – Soap is a great material for carving. It’s safe and well-very clean. Dull blades can be used and still create good details. Soap is also inexpensive and perfect for a class project. The best part is that the cheaper soaps are better suited for sculpture!
Plaster of Paris – Plaster of Paris is easy to find at most art stores. It’s inexpensive and easy to mix. Pour it into empty paper milk cartons. Peel away the paper after it sets, and you’re ready to create a sculpture. Use a rasp and sand paper to remove the plaster to reveal your sculpture.
Balsa Wood – Balsa wood is soft and pliable. It’s extremely easy to carve. It makes a suitable wood for beginning carvers. Balsa wood can be picked up at most art stores, but larger pieces might have to be special ordered. Balsa wood is not very expensive, but it’s not cheap either. Carving with Balsa wood might not be suitable for younger artists, since sharp knives are recommended for carving.
The development of sophisticated calligraphy as an art form is not unique to Islamic culture. Other examples include Chinese and Japanese calligraphy and illuminated bibles from north-west Europe including the famous Book of Kells. In the Islamic world, however, calligraphy has been used to a much greater extent and in astonishingly varied and imaginative ways, which have taken the written word far beyond pen and paper into all art forms and materials. For these reasons, calligraphy may be counted as a uniquely original feature of Islamic art. The genius of Islamic calligraphy lies not only in the endless creativity and versatility, but also in the balance struck by calligraphers between transmitting a text and expressing its meaning through a formal aesthetic code.
The Arabic language, and subsequently the art of calligraphy, is held in great esteem by Muslims because Arabic was the language in which the Qu’ran was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad in the 7th century. The Arabic text of the Qu’ran is sacred to Muslims, and its high status gave rise to an associated respect for books in general. However, it is important to remember that while the Qu’ran’s holy status provides an explanation for calligraphy’s importance, by no means all Arabic calligraphy is religious in content. In general, calligraphic inscriptions on works of art comprise one or more of the following types of text:
- Qu’ranic quotations
- other religious texts
- praise for rulers
These types of text can be seen across all art forms.
Since Muhammad’s time, Arabic has become a great world language, used over a huge area as a language of religion, government, commerce, literature and science. In time, the letters of the Arabic script, with the addition of a few new letter forms, were also used to write in Persian, Turkish and other languages, as well as Arabic.
How the scripts developed
Although many dialects of Arabic were spoken in pre-Islamic times, and some are known to have been written down, most literature was transmitted orally. The Qu’ran, too, was preserved by oral transmission until after the Prophet’s death when it was recorded in written form. This required that the Arabic script be standardised. We know that the standard form of script was in use by the end of the 7th century. It was employed, for example, on the first surviving monument of Islamic architecture, the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, built in AD 691. The new writing also appeared on the coins minted for Muhammad’s successors, the caliphs. Both the Dome of the Rock and early Islamic coinage use Qu’ranic quotations to declare Islam as the new monotheistic faith.
The first formal calligraphic style is called the Kufic style after the city of Kufah in Iraq. It was used in many early Qur’an manuscripts and for inscriptions, including those at the Dome of the Rock. Confusingly, the same name is also commonly used for a second major group of script styles, which came to prominence in the 10th century. These new, more angular styles came to include many fanciful variants such as foliated Kufic (decorated with curling leaf shapes) and floriated Kufic (decorated with flower forms). This second group of Kufic styles was used in contexts as varied as Qu’ran manuscripts, coinage, architectural inscriptions and the decoration of ceramics.
While this second type of Kufic was being developed in the Middle East, probably in Baghdad, a new style was developed far to the west, in Muslim-ruled Spain or Morocco. The Arabic name for this western region is al-Maghrib, and so the new style was called Maghribi. Some calligraphers in the region still use this Maghribi style today. In the Eastern Islamic world, however, the Kufic styles had more or less died out by the 13th century, replaced by the range of more rounded styles in use now.
It may be that the new, more fluid styles developed in the East because paper had replaced parchment and papyrus as the main medium for important manuscripts and documents. The surface of the paper could be sized (coated with starch) and rubbed with a stone until extremely smooth and glossy. The pen moved over this surface with great ease. (Parchment continued to be used until a much later date in the Maghrib).
Another factor was the type of pen used, which was made from a reed. The nib was made by cutting the end of the reed with a knife. Different effects could be achieved by cutting the nib in different ways. The later, rounded scripts were written with a nib cut at an oblique angle, which allowed the calligrapher to create both thick and thin lines, adding elegance and variety to the script. The width of the pen was also important: wider nibs were needed for larger script so that the width of the line stayed in proportion to the overall size of the writing.
A system of proportion based on the width of the nib also determined the shapes of the individual letters, and the relative sizes of the letters in a line of writing. The letter Alif, for example, consists essentially of a single vertical stroke. In one style, it is only three times as high as it is wide, while in another it is seven times as high. The letter Alif is therefore far more prominent in the second style and contributes to its overall appearance. Variations were allowed to take account of the different contexts a letter might occur in, and there was also flexibility in the length of the ligatures, or joins between the letters. This was important because the Arabic script is always cursive, or joined-up, and never has separate letters, as in printed English.
Another basic ingredient in the formation of a style was the nature of the base line. In many scripts, the imaginary line on which the letters were written was strictly horizontal. In others, each new group of letters began above the base line and then sloped downwards to the left to meet it. Arabic script, unlike English, reads right to left. These ‘hanging’ scripts were originally devised as a security feature in official documents, because the ‘hanging’ groups could be placed very close together to prevent unauthorised additions. Later, though, this feature was used in other contexts because it was considered elegant.
Materials and techniques
Designs with calligraphy were created out of many different materials. Yet calligraphy often imitates the technical effects of pen on paper, even when it appears on other media. It is possible to see, for example, the graceful range from thick to thin line and the square shape of superscript dots written with a square-cut pen nib. Artists often made their designs by copying from prepared templates written out (on to paper) by a calligrapher.
Ink on parchment
Before the invention of paper, vellum or parchment was the highest quality writing material available. It is made from prepared animal hide. A reed pen, with the tip cut at an angle and filled with ink, would have been used. Writing on vellum can be erased or altered.
Ink on paper
The calligraphy would have been created using a reed pen and ink directly onto starched and polished paper, which provided an excellent smooth surface for writing.
The calligraphy tile pictured below was deeply carved with the inscriptions (and plant designs) and covered with coloured glazes, before the final firing. This technique was used in Central Asia only for a brief period, from around 1350 to the early 1600s.
The letters were carved and then painted. In the image below the paint has now mostly worn off though you can still see some traces remaining.
This window pictured below is made from small pieces of glass of different colours, which have been arranged in patterns within a plaster framework.
The weaver of the silk from Muslim Spain has accurately reproduced the flowing lines of a written inscription in Arabic, a task requiring enormous care in the design. The phrase ‘Glory to our lord the sultan’ has been repeated within the widest band in the design, creating the illusion of a long frieze of calligraphy.
The lamp was made by blowing hot glass into shape and then leaving it to cool. The enamel colours and gilding were then painted on – the enamel was a solution of colours and ground glass that melted and fused on to the lamp when it was reheated in a kiln. The blown glass would have been decorated with enamel and gilt, possibly using fine brushes.
Metalworkers chiselled out tiny areas of the brass surface and filled them with pieces of silver and gold. They added details by chasing the surfaces of the softer inlaid metals with a hammer and tools and adding a black filler to create contrast. The casket pictured below has a strip of calligraphy around the sides and on the lid.
As well as being written with great elegance, there were many ways in which calligraphy could be enhanced by adding decoration. The words themselves could be written in gold, or in colours other than black. Letters and words could also be outlined or could lie against a background pattern. In addition, calligraphers combined different sizes, colours and styles of text for different phrases or sections of text (but always sticking to the rules of proportionality within each section). These Qu’ran folios show how calligraphers could make functional details of formatting and punctuation into beautifully designed elements.
Notice that the decorated frames and background patterns do not interfere with the clarity of the script, or distract from the content of the text. This is very important because the Qu’ran is considered to be the word of God.
- Students involved in drama performance coursework or experience outscored non-arts students on the 2005 SAT by an average of 65 points in the verbal component and 34 points in the math component(1)?
- Drama activities improve reading comprehension, and both verbal and non-verbal communication skills?
- Drama helps to improve school attendance and reduce high school dropout rates(2)?
- A 2005 Harris Poll revealed that 93% of the public believes that arts, including theatre, are vital to a well-rounded education (3)?
- Drama can improve skills and academic performance in children and youth with learning disabilities?
DRAMA IMPROVES ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
Numerous studies have demonstrated a correlation between drama involvement and academic achievement. In addition to having higher standardized test scores than their peers who do not experience the arts, student who participate in drama often experience improved reading comprehension, maintain better attendance records, and stay generally more engaged in school than their non-arts counterparts. Schools with arts-integrated programs, even in low-income areas, report high academic achievement.
DRAMA STUDENTS OUTPERFORM NON-ARTS PEERS ON SAT TESTS
The College Entrance Examination Board reported student scores from 2001, 2002, 2004, and 2005 using data from the Student Description Questionnaire indicating student involvement in various activities, including the arts. As compared to their peers with no arts coursework or involvement:
- Students involved in drama performance scored an average of 65.5 points higher on the verbal component and 35.5 points higher in the math component of the SAT
- Students who took courses in drama study or appreciation scored, on average, 55 points higher on verbal and 26 points higher on math than their non-arts classmates.
- In 2005, students involved in drama performance outscored the national average SAT score by 35 points on the verbal portion and 24 points on the math section.
Research indicates that involvement in the arts increases student engagement and encourages consistent attendance, and that drop-out rates correlate with student levels of involvement in the arts.
- – Students considered to be at high risk for dropping out of high school cite drama and other arts classes as their motivations for staying in school.
- – Students who participate in the arts are 3 times more likely to win an award for school attendance than those who do not.
From learning to read to the in-depth study of Shakespearean literature, drama can play a significant role in the continual development of students’ reading comprehension skills. Studies indicate that not only do the performance of a story and a number of other drama activities in the classroom contribute to a student’s understanding of the work performed, but these experiences also help them to develop a better understanding of other works and of language and expression in general. The results below were gleaned from studies where educators and students alike noticed a difference when drama played a part in their classrooms,
- A series of studies on the arts and education revealed a consistent causal link between performing texts in the classroom and the improvement of a variety of verbal skills, including especially significant increases in story recall and understanding of written material.
- Performance of Shakespeare texts helps to improve students’ understanding of other complex texts including science and math material.
- Drama can improve reading skills and comprehension better than other activities, including discussion.
- High school students who are highly involved in drama demonstrate an elevated self-concept over those who are not involved .
- Playwriting original works and dramatic presentation of existing works can help to build the self-esteem and communication skills of high school students.
- The act of performing can help students and youth recognize their potential for success and improve their confidence .
BRIDGING THE ACHIEVEMENT GAP
Since the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act, there has been a national focus on closing the “achievement gap” between students of varying abilities, socioeconomic status, and geographies among other factors that may directly or indirectly affect a student’s academic success. The arts, including drama, address this issue by catering to different styles of learning, and engaging students who might not otherwise take significant interest in academics. Additionally, research indicates that drama courses and performance have a particularly positive effect on at-risk youth and students with learning disabilities.
- A study published in Champions of Change (1999) cites theatre arts, including performance, classes, and participation in a drama club, as a source for “gains in reading proficiency, gains in self-concept and motivation, and higher levels of empathy and tolerance towards others” among youth of low socio-economic status .
- Drama activities can improve and help to maintain social and language skills of students with learning disabilities and remedial readers .
- Improvisational drama contributes to improved reading achievement and attitude in disadvantaged students .
Learning the skills
- Every career demands certain skills and abilities from its professionals. Some key traits for a makeup artist are: natural talent; ability to speak and listen well; good manner with people; eye for detail; a flexible nature; a positive nature; patience; hand-eye coordination; ability to draw straight lines and consistent shapes; creativity; great portfolio; good grooming and personal hygiene habits.
- There are two ways to learn how to be a makeup artist. You can go it alone or you can go to a school. Either way you will have to practice.
- Some ways to sneak in practice is to have makeup parties, read books on makeup, volunteer for makeup-related jobs, find a mentor or be an apprentice or become an intern.
- If you chose to go to school to learn the art of makeup, make sure you shop around. A good article on the subject is “Before You Choose a Makeup School” by Mary Erickson. She cautions that your first impression of a school is probably not necessarily indicative of the reality of it.
- Here are a few things to keep in mind while looking to schools:
-Are the teachers working professionals?
-Is the curriculum up-to-date?
-Is the curriculum advanced (or beginning) enough for your level?
-Is the class/program specialized or specific?
-Does the school offer on-the-job training or co-op programs?
-Does the school offer job placement help?
-What is the school’s published placement rate of its graduates?
-How large or small is the average class?
-How much time is given to hands-on training?
-Does the school supply models?
-As the program in or cover the area(s) you are interested in?
-Ask to sit in on a few classes. If the school refuses, see it as a red flag that they are more interested in cranking out graduates rather than really helping you.
-What is the school/class cancellation policy?
-Ask to speak with past graduates. If they decline, see it as another red flag.
Getting the job
- Finding job openings can be tricky if your school does not offer placement help, or you do not already know someone in the field. Use the classified ads in papers, job boards, company websites, online job boards and trade publications.
- Once you have the job make yourself handy and go beyond the basics of the job. Don’t settle for the status quo: be visible, be creative, be polite and professional, and be personable.
- Always present the highest quality work ethic in all things, in all ways.
Alienation from Nature
- From a certain point of view, digital technology is merely the next logical step in a long process that has seen mankind lose touch with the natural world. Critics fear that this alienation has been both the cause of unhealthy mental habits and neurosis in individuals, as well as the cause of environmentally destructive habits in society at large.
Loss of Originality
- The critic Walter Benjamin famously described art in the 20th century as having lost its aura. Works of art were now being mass-produced by machines and originality was less important. Digital technology has taken this process even farther than Benjamin imagined, making the reproduction of digital artwork (such as a music or movie file) unlimited. Critics claim that this cheapens art and makes it harder for a creator to benefit from his or her originality.
- Digital technology has proven to be a very destabilizing force where it has been introduced. Older hierarchies in business and politics have already been disrupted by computers and the Internet. Digital technology is inherently difficult to police and as the world becomes more digital, it will also become more lawless and out of control. Critics point to the breakdown of copyright law as an example.
- As computers and other digital tools become more important, the difference between those who have digital technology and those who don’t becomes more dangerous. Many critics point to a “digital divide” which increases the differences already existing between the rich and the poor. Bringing access to digital technology for the world’s poor is a developing problem in the new modern world.
Computers as Nature
- From one point of view, computers are as much a creation of the natural world as trees or the rain. This is because human beings are a product of the natural world. It stands to reason that anything human beings create will be as much a part of the natural world as they are. Understanding the digital in this way shows the promise and danger of technology, as nature can be both cruel and kind.
- Draw a long rectangle for the body of the car. Draw a shorter rectangle to the left of the long one. Attach these two shapes with a straight line.
- Add a trapezoid to above and to the right of the front rectangle to create the front window. The top line of this trapezoid should be shorter than the bottom line. Add triangle to the right side of the trapezoid for the front-side window. Erase the top point of the triangle and replace it with a horizontal line.
- Draw a square directly to the right of the triangle for the back-side window. Add a horizontal line above these shapes. This line should start above the front window and continue just past the back-side window. Attach a diagonal line to this line so that it connects with the body of the truck.
- Draw two circles for the truck’s left-side wheels. Place one near the front left and the other near the back right. The back wheel should be smaller than the front. Add a curved line under the front left side of the truck to show the bottom of the front right wheel. Draw another curved line between the front and back left-side tires. This will act as the back-right wheel.
- Add details to the basic frame. Draw a small diagonal rectangle to the left-bottom corner of the front-side window for the side mirror. Add the grill with a rectangle in the upper middle of the front of the truck. Add two small rectangles to the left and right sides for the grill for headlights. Add the doors with vertical lines on the side of the truck. Place the first vertical line at the just below the side mirror. Add another vertical line running between the front and back windows. Add the last vertical line under the bottom-right corner of the back-side window.
- Draw four horizontal lines across the grill. Add a curved line above each wheel. Draw the door handles with a small thin rectangle inside a circle. Add one just below the bottom-right corner of the front side window and another under the bottom-right side of the back window. Draw the rims on the car with small circles inside the center of the wheels. Erase all the guidelines. Ink the entire drawing. Let the ink dry and erase the pencil.
- Color the entire body of the car baby blue. Color the windows, tires and inside of the grill black. Color the bumper, rims and metal of the grill light gray. Color the side-left headlight orange. Using the dark blue marker, add dark lines to the bottom of the body of the car. Add dark lines around the tires as well. This will help the car have realistic shading. Add dark gray lines to the middle, bottom and right side of the bumper to add depth.
- The ancient Grecian satyr play was a comedic performance enhanced by music, dance and sometimes masks, while in ancient India, the Natya Shastra was an important text that taught performers how the use of words and gestures (bhavas) evoked specific emotions (rasas) in the audience.
Medieval and Renaissance Theatre
- In Medieval Japan, Noh was a leading artistic performance style blending the use of readings, music, costumes and dance to portray simple beauty. One important element was the jo-ha-kyu dance, which was a courtly dance incorporated into the rest of the play.
Medieval European theatre was often limited to Passion Plays about Jesus Christ or morality plays, but the Renaissance era saw a reemergence of stylized performances of masques, which were spectacle events combining music, dance and speeches.
Ballad Opera in the Pre-America Colonies
- Ballad operas were a form of British performance displaying political commentary through the use of music and dance. The first musical theatre performance that was held in the American Colonies was the ballad opera “Flora” in 1735.
- Minstrel shows featured individuals “blacking” their faces and doing parodies of African Americans. While these pieces are controversial, they are also considered a foundation for modern American musical dance. Actors would perform various forms of hardshoe dancing, creating dance steps still seen in musicals today.
Another key performance was “The Black Crook,” coming about as the result of Broadway theatre manager Thomas Wheatly employing a Parisian ballet troupe whose intended performance space caught fire. He added the dancers to an already-existing melodrama and the result greatly pleased audiences.
Twentieth Century American Musical Dance
- The Ziegfeld Follies, produced from 1907 to 1931, were tributes to the American girl, and the dance directors of the Follies required a good deal of discipline from their actors/dancers. These directors included Julian Mitchell, Ned Wayburn and Albertina Rasch. The Follies can be credited with redefining theatrical dance with the beginnings of ordering dancers by height, requiring precise movements and using dance notations.
“Show Boat” (1927) is considered to be the first successful integration of plot line, characterization, music, spectacle and dance. In 1936, choreographer George Balanchine used extended ballet pieces to help develop the plot line in “On Your Toes.” This tradition of musical theatre dance continued through shows such as “Oklahoma!” and “Guys and Dolls.”
Musical Dance Continues
- Musicals intended to display dance sequences were created in the later 1900s in shows like “Cabaret,” “A Chorus Line” and “Cats.” Some of the more well-known choreographers of the later 20th century include Bob Fosse, who encouraged sensuality in movement; Jerome Robbins, who believed that dance could tell a story; and Gary Chapman, whose choreography extended beyond dance into regular stage movements.
- Choose the works you wish to include in your portfolio with care and discernment. Theater companies will want to see the best of your best work, and each company or university may have specific parameters as to the number and type of works you include. If you do not have any theatrical designs under your belt, decide on a selection of your best drawings, paintings and renderings. You can also select a play and create a potential design plan for that production. When selecting your portfolio inclusions, choose the items that demonstrate your skill, knowledge and range.
- Photograph and copy all of your portfolio items before compiling them in a book or on a CD. Few companies return a portfolio once it is submitted, so high-quality copies of your work are essential. Take photographs of props and costumes that you’ve designed. Visit a printing or photo-copy store to have high-quality scans and prints made of your sketches, set designs and lighting plans, as well as the photographs of your finished projects. Include copies of the paperwork essential to your design job — costume plots, build plans — as well to demonstrate that you understand both the design and the production process.
- Place one image per page or frame of your portfolio with the information for that production clearly labeled on a small square of paper, inserted at the bottom right corner of the page. You can organize designs by show, or you can organize paintings and art that are not theatrical in chronological order to show the development of your skill. Portfolio books can either be specially designed folders available at many art stores, or they can be three-ring binders with your pages slipped into page protectors.
- Create a folder specifically for a digital portfolio, then group images by show in separate sub-folders within the main portfolio folder. Name each image with the title of the sketch, the production, and other necessary information. Do not create a slideshow or movie of these images, as your software may be incompatible with other computers. Save images as JPEGs and text documents as Rich Text files or PDFs; these files are typically compatible with all computers.
- A few large, marble body parts are all that remains of the Colossal Statue of Constantine I. The statue was about 30 feet high, in a seated position, and was originally placed in the Basilica Nova of Maxentius and Constantine in the Roman Forum. The hand, with a single finger extended, is probably the most recognizable bit.
- The ancient Romans kept domesticated dogs for safety and companionship. Cave Canem, a simple mosaic found on the floor of The Tragic Poet in Pompeii, is simply named for the Latin words “Beware of Dog,” which are also part of the mosaic. Many homes in Pompeii had similar mosaics cautioning visitors about the resident canine.
Paintings and Frescos
- The paintings and murals that decorate The Villa of Mysteries in Pompeii are not only famous for their form but for how well they have been preserved. They depict a mysterious procession that is not fully understood, but is generally believed to be part of an ancient initiation rite into adulthood. Few paintings have survived to the present day from ancient Rome.
- There are many structures and buildings that still strike the onlooker with wonder and awe, but the Roman Colosseum is by far the most famous. The word “Colosseum” is the most popular search term on the Internet under the buildings category. The real name for the Roman Colosseum is the Flavian Amphitheater and it was completed in 80 A.D.
- Christianity was not well thought of in ancient Rome, but its presence did create at least one piece of famous art. The Alexamenos Graffito dates from the first century A.D. and was sketched by an unknown artist and discovered on the Palatine Hill in 1857. This simple etching is famous for illustrating how the average Roman viewed Christianity. It is clearly not complimentary, giving the person on the cross the head of a donkey and mocking the human figure — presumably Alexamenos, who is also named in the etching — for his worship of the crucified figure.
- Practice drawing graffiti letters in your sketchbook with a pencil. Practice designing and drawing several sample alphabets. Keep in mind that graffiti letters overlap each other, can be large, blocks, bubbly, angular, rounded, all capital, all lowercase, cursive, print or any combination of the above.
- Practice drawing your sample letters in words with a pencil. When creating words, decide which of the elements from Step 1 you will include and how they will overlap. Also keep in mind stretching parts of a letter is a possibility, such as the bottom of an L, R, K or Z used as an underline for the rest of the word. Add creative elements to your letters, such as a face in the middle of an O, or teeth at the “mouth” of a G.
- Choose your color scheme and then color the practiced words with markers. Outline your letters in one color and fill them in with another. Add drop shadows to your words with any color you choose.
- Choose a wall to paint on if you legally have permission to do so or own the space yourself. If this is not an option, you can use a canvas of any size you desire.
- Draw a grid using chalk. Then plot out your letters by drawing them lightly with the chalk. Paint the fill-in sections first with spray paint. Get closer to your words and then slowly use the spray paint to trace the outlines and draw the shadows.
- Apply varnish to your finished product to protect it.
- Engineers and scientists in the mid-1960s were at the forefront of computer technology and art. During this time, they were the only ones who had access to mainframe computers. Algorithmic methods were used to create scientific artwork instead of the interactive graphical user interfaces that are used today. Many artists rejected this new form of digital art at first, but soon accepted the intertwining of art and technology. In 1965, the first digital or computer art exhibitions were organized by a group of scientists at the Wise Gallery in New York and in Stuttgart, Germany. Billy Kluver and artist Robert Rauschenberg in 1967 formed an organization, EAT or Experiments in Art and Technology, that promoted the collaboration of artists and engineers. This lead to Cybernetic Serendipity, one of the most important milestones in digital art exhibitions. It was held at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London in 1968.
Early Digital Artists
- In 1968, Vera Molnar, from Budapest, Hungary, invented “Machine Imaginaire.” She transformed different geometric shapes, such as a triangle, by rotating and deforming, erasing parts or merging them with other geometric shapes (similar to some screen saver images today).
Larry Cuba was a pioneer in animation art and produced his first computer animation in 1974. One of Cuba’s most famous works was for the animated sequences used in the movie “Star Wars.”
Lillian Schwartz is a digital artist best known for computer art and analysis in graphics, film, video, animation, special effects, virtual reality and multimedia. Her artwork was the first computer-generated art to be acquired by the Museum of Modern Art.
Digital Art Software Companies
- Wavefront Technologies was founded in 1984 by Mark Sylvester, Larry Barels and Bill Kovacs. They started out producing computer graphics for television commercials and movies, which later led them to design the Dream Quest software that was used to create more than 90 visual effects sequences for the movie “Crimson Tide.” Wavefront also join together with Atari to create the software Gameware, which was used to create Atari video games.
In 1983, Stephen Bingham, Nigel McGrath, Susan McKenna and David Springer founded Alias Research. Alias created a realistic 3D video animation software package for the advertising and movie industries. They launched Alias/1, in 1985, a software that produces smoother and realistic lines or surfaces for animated creations.
Digital Art Exhibitions
- The Society for Photographic Education (SPE) sponsors an annual exhibition throughout the United States for the discussion of photography in media and its value as a means of creative expression. ISA International Sign Exhibition is another traveling exhibition that displays new and innovative designs for billboards and other public advertising mediums.
- Growing and expanding industries have a high demand for digital art skills. There is a great need of digital artists in computer and game designs, animation, web design, publishing and other communication and visual media. According to the Bureau of Labor statistics, employment of artists is expected to grow through the year 2018, as advertisers and computer design firms demand innovative technology artists. Digital art also has great significance to interactive media such as cellular telephones and personal digital assistants, PDAs. It covers a broad spectrum of art and technological industries with no foreseen decrease in popular demand
A Quick Guide to Games And Entertainment Today almost everything is undergoing some form of revolution, since most of them have undergone tremendous change. If at all you are one of those personnel who remains in office for a whole day, then it is important you look out for some relaxation at the end of the day. The free online games are making it possible for people to enjoy their choice game, in order to relieve the unnecessary stress. Among all the games that are online based, the multiplayer games still stand as the best games that provide people with extreme fun. The good thing with these games is that, they offer you a chance to compete against other competitors. Today online world is offering people an opportunity to connect and start playing with other players, though back in the years it was popularly known for providing news and entertainment. The commendable part with the internet games, is that they are normally easy to access and do offer a lot of entertainment and excitement. The online gaming still stands out as the best alternative to have extreme entertainment, though there are various ways you may spend your leisure. You are not only going to enjoy playing the online card games but more also you have a good opportunity to win huge chunks of money in the multiplayer games. You are assured to find various popular games at a free cost, if at all you consider conducting proper internet search. The best part with the online games is that there are mainly two types of games, that include java platform based games and the flash platform based games. Nowadays the online gaming has become an addictive form of gaming, due to the fact that they provide people with unending fun. People are normally offered exciting gaming experience by the online gaming since they are easy to operate games. There are a number of considerations you will need to ensure so as to enjoy these online games.
3 Activities Tips from Someone With Experience
It will be most suitable before you start playing these games, you consider downloading the appropriate plug-in for your browser for supporting the graphics. You are advised you get to consider having a fast internet connection since games do require more time to download in a slow net connections. What makes the online games very good, is due to the fact that these games are convenient to download and easy to play. Nowadays people are finding the online gaming as a good entertainment media and more also helps in relieving boredom. The appreciable thing about the online games is that they can be played by all people, in regardless of their age and gender.
Incredible Lessons I’ve Learned About Cards
It will be best when you are looking for online games stores you choose the game that will offer you unlimited fun and entertainment.
- Draw or photocopy your image and any text onto an 11- by 17-inch piece of paper.
- Draw a 17- by 23-inch rectangle on the art board with a yardstick and permanent pen, then cut it out with your craft knife. Place this smaller piece of board on the tarp and spray it with adhesive. Flip your drawing over and spray the back of it with adhesive, then wait 30 seconds for the glue to begin to dry.
- Place the drawing glue-side-down onto the art board and center it so you have a three inch border on all sides. Press the two pieces together with the palms of your hands. Rub across the drawing with a hard squeegee to flatten it completely and encourage the glue to adhere strongly. Wait for the glue to dry.
- Cut through the outlines of the black parts of your drawing with the craft knife, pressing hard enough to cut the board below. Leave narrow ligaments to connect independent shapes and ensure the stability of the stencil as a whole.
- Find an empty pizza box and use it as a folder to carry your stencil. If you don’t have a pizza box, disassemble a file box, fold it in half and trim it to the right size with the craft knife.
- Find a place to apply your stencil and affix it to the surface with gaffer’s tape. Shake a can of matte black spray paint repeatedly for 10 seconds, then spritz the inside of your cardboard folder to start the flow of paint.
- Hold the spray can eight inches away from the stencil and spray back-and-forth across the cut-out areas in sweeping motions. Try not to spray any paint outside the edges of the stencil. Use as little paint as possible to avoid causing drips. Remove the stencil from the wall and place it into its cardboard folder.
- The root of the Choctaw religion is based around the sun and worshiping it. Members of the ancient tribe considered the sun to be a god, most often called Hashtahli. The moon was thought to be his wife. The tribe referred to her as Hashi Ninak Anya, and believed the stars at night were the children of the sun and the moon. Fire is extremely important in the Choctaw religion because it is considered to be a secondary representation of the sun and its heat. Four is a significant number to the religion because there are four seasons and four cardinal directions, as well as four key elements. The tribe has always acknowledged the presence of evil in the world, but they did not consider it to be from a single source, such as the devil in Christianity. Instead, there were said to be several different entities of evil and mischief, such as Impashilup, who was capable of consuming a person’s soul if they allowed him into their thoughts as well as many others who could be found anywhere from the river to the woods. When a Choctaw dies, it is believed that their spirit goes to “the Happy Land” similar to heaven in Christian beliefs.
- Ancient Choctaws are believed to have descended from the continent LeMuria, which is believed to have been washed away by the Pacific Ocean. It is said the tribe emerged from the ocean to be dried by their deity, the sun, and then moved east before settling in what is now the state of Mississippi. It is believed the tribe is possibly related to the Aztecs and Mayans, as well as the Incas and that their religious beliefs stemmed from those of these ancient cultures.
- There are basically two main groups within the Choctaw tribe. The first is simply referred to as “the tribe” and can mainly be found in Mississippi. The other group is called “the nation” and presides in the state of Oklahoma. Both sects of the tribe share the same religious background because both originally are from the same area.
- The Choctaw religion deems women as the givers of life because they bear children and are responsible for growing the vegetables. Therefore it is somewhat of a matriarchy in that when a man marries a woman, he becomes a member of her family and lives with them from that point on. He is never considered an actual member of the family because he continues to be a member of his own mother’s family. Still, he stays with the family and works with them. Men are considered to be takers of life because they hunt and kill the food the tribe eats.
- The religious beliefs of the Choctaw tribe have evolved over time. Today most members of the tribe practice at least some version of Christianity. This is most likely due to the tribe’s integration into European American culture. Still, there are some who continue to practice the ancient Choctaw religious beliefs.
- Sketch your entire drawing very lightly. Give yourself a clear map of where objects are on the page, but keep in mind that it is only a map. This sketching shows you the shape of your artwork just like a real map shows you the shape of a place. Determine the position of the light source. You do not have to draw your light source, just know its location. The parts of objects in your drawing that protrude the most and are closest to your light source will be the lightest. The parts that are farthest from your light source or from you as a viewer will be darkest. The parts that are in between will be medium.
- Shade gently in the areas that will have medium shading. You always can darken them more later on. Working in layers gives you the most versatility and reduces the need for erasing. For example, assume the sun is shining down on a tree from the top right corner of your page. The branches and section of the trunk that are getting some light off to the side, but are not directly facing that top corner, would have medium shading. Also, consider texture as you add your shading. Objects far away will have less visible texture than those close up. On the tree, you would notice the roughness of the bark and tiny details in the leaves as you got close.
- Darken the areas of deepest shadow. In the tree example, these would be the parts of the branches and trunk that are facing completing away from the sun. Continue to work with the object’s texture where shadows are not so dark that they obscure surface detail.
- Go back with a gum eraser and lift the graphite to create highlights or leave highlight areas untouched. On your tree, leaves and branches facing the sun would obviously be the lightest and show the greatest detail. You also can fill in gray tones and dark shading around the highlighted areas, making them stand out even more.
Pros of Creativity in the Classroom
- Some argue that children need to learn how to be more creative so they can deal with the ever changing world when they become adults. They will need to rely on their thinking skills, wits, and intuition to keep pace with technology updates and problem-solving skills required for jobs and promotions. Creative mindsets are becoming more and more in demand. Creative employees are sometimes able to see options and solutions where others can’t, often saving companies large sums of money and creating jobs.
Creativity builds a child’s self-esteem. It gives them a sense of satisfaction when they can come up with innovative ideas and can make their own choices. Promoting creativity assists children in learning how to solve problems and do projects in different ways. Instead of being told to do an assignment in a certain way, teachers can build on creativity by allowing students to choose their own methods of completing a homework task.
Cons of Creativity in the Classroom
- Some subjects, such as science and math, are not very conducive to creativity. There are ways to be creative with projects and ways of figuring problems, but the scope of creativity is limited. Therefore, promoting creativity tends to work best in classes such as art, writing, and music.
All children are creative, but some are much more so than others. By promoting creativity in the classroom, some of the students will have the upper hand while the others will be at a loss as to what to do, and feel left out or overwhelmed by the projects or assignments and the lack of structure and guidelines.
Teachers and Creativity
- Creativity can be difficult to promote because there is so much emphasis on group involvement, structure, rules, and boundaries. All children are creative to some capacity, and it is up to the teachers to draw out the creativity in a productive and optimistic manner.
- Creativity does have its drawbacks in some classroom situations, but for the most part it is essential to the total development and future success of the student. It is fast becoming a survival skill in today’s world, as the creative person is more adaptable and can come up with solutions to problems more quickly and easily.
- The presentation of written word known as theater began in Athens and diffused to other parts of the ancient Greek empire. Fifth-century playwrights Aristophanes and Sophocles produced comedies and tragedies, respectively. During the early days of theater, masks were used to represent a variety of emotions and to disguise male actors playing female roles. Only 44 plays from the ancient Greeks remain today, serving as the foundation of Western theater.
- Just as Athens was the birthplace of theater, in 508 B.C. it became the world’s first democracy. Democracy is a system of government in which citizens elect representatives to advocate for them in the government. Plato, an ancient Greek philosopher, wrote “Politics” and encouraged citizens to question the established government. Only free adult men could be citizens during this time; women and slaves were excluded from owning property or voting.
- The most recognizable contribution the ancient Greeks made to architecture are their columns and pavilions. There are two types of Greek columns, Doric and Ionic. Doric is a minimalistic style, while Ionic columns were more ornate, with scrolls carved into each side. Many buildings in Washington, D.C. were based on classical Greek buildings. Universities and colleges, such as the University of Virginia, have ancient Greek influenced structures. The beautiful, clean style is still appreciated today.
- During the Classical and Hellenistic periods of Greek art, the ancient Greeks idolized the human form. During this time, advances in sculpting and painting techniques were made that would influence the Italian Renaissance centuries later. Once classical Greek art was rediscovered, Italian artists began depicting the beauty of the human body as the Greeks once did. Along with modern religion themes of the time, Italian painters also painted scenes of popular Greek myths and stories.
Think back to when you were in elementary school. In between doing all the dittos and spelling tests and times tables, there were specials (and aptly named, too). Nothing was quite as exciting as the gleeful anticipation of putting on your smock for art class or pulling out the wooden recorders for music. And when it was time for the class play, just forget it. Whether you starred as Snow White or donned a furry costume as Woodland Creature #7, school couldn’t get much better. And that was the whole point.
These days, however, not only are many kids lucky if they have art-on-a-cart, but when they do, proponents often have to justify the programs in relation to students’ performance on standardized reading and math tests. Because in the age of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), few things matter more than test scores (read our report on NCLB at Parenting.com/nclb). Well, the bad news first: Although kids who are involved in the arts do tend to test better, there’s no direct cause-and-effect evidence that participation actually helps raise scores.
This sounds like awful news and justification to slash school arts programs even further, right? But “dismissing the arts if they don’t directly boost scores is a big mistake,” says Richard Kessler, executive director of the Center for Arts Education in New York City. “In fact, plenty of research shows that children who spend time in school doing visual art, performing music or dance, or even acting in a play gain a whole set of creative and analytical skills that are quickly disappearing from the rest of the curriculum.”
That’s because in the majority of public schools, the emphasis is on test prep, which means lots of memorization, rote learning, and following directions. In fact, many have more than doubled instructional time in math and English language arts (ELA) since NCLB was enacted in 2002. More math and reading instruction might sound like a good thing — that is, until you realize what’s being eliminated to make room for it. Those same schools have cut arts education by an average of 35 percent. Ideally, children should have an hour of each arts discipline once a week. But few schools make the grade. Twelve percent of school districts don’t offer any arts instruction at all.
And it’s not like putting all the focus on nonstop test-prep is having the desired effect. Test scores have failed to rise as hoped. Meanwhile, Hong Kong as well as Japan, Canada, Finland, and five other countries that consistently outperform us in math and reading all require extensive education in the arts without narrowing their curriculum, according to a new report from Common Core, a Washington, DC, educational research and advocacy organization. For example, national guidelines in Hong Kong recommend that fourth-graders visit artists’ studios and study great works of sculpture and painting; in Ontario, Canada, learning musical composition and conducting are standard for eighth-graders. “The situation here is extremely frustrating,” says Lynne Munson, Common Core’s executive director. “We have lots of proof that a broad education that includes the arts works better than what we’re doing — and yet we’re ignoring it.”
All of this has education experts worried indeed. It should also worry parents. “It’s not as easy to test the skills that children learn from the arts, but that doesn’t make them any less important,” says Kimberly Sheridan, Ed.D., coauthor of Studio Thinking: The Real Benefits of Visual Arts Education. According to a recent study she conducted with colleagues at Harvard’s Project Zero, an educational research group, participating in a school arts program increases a child’s ability to:
Observe the world carefully and discard preconceptions n envision something and then create it
Go beyond just learning a skill to express a personal voice
Problem-solve and persist despite frustration and setbacks
Reflect on the results and ask what could improve them
What’s more, other research using brain imaging along with behavioral assessments has established strong links between the arts and specific cognitive skills. In a landmark 2008 study by the nonprofit Dana Foundation, neuroscientists at seven universities found that:
Musical training improves reading by helping children distinguish the sound structure of words
Acting boosts memory and the ability to articulate ideas
Strong interest in a performing art leads to better attention and memory
But perhaps most crucial of all, the arts foster creativity and innovation far beyond the classroom. “Art gives kids a chance to learn by doing instead of just being lectured to,” says Jeff Gonzalez, a middle school art teacher in Dobbs Ferry, NY. “There’s no right answer in art, which means they can explore, connect new ideas, and learn from what they feel were their successes and failures without negative consequences. They just can’t get all that in math or history.” This is why our current educational strategy is so shortsighted. The arts have definite practical applications for our kids’ futures. A recent survey of business leaders rated creativity as a top skill that will only increase in importance. And as First Lady Michelle Obama said in a recent speech, “My husband and I believe strongly that arts education is essential for building innovative thinkers who will be our leaders of tomorrow.”
The Obama administration is starting to act on this belief by launching a new survey to assess the state of arts education. Results aren’t expected until 2011, but in the meantime some schools are proving that wonderful things can happen when arts are a valued part of the curriculum. When administrators at Middle School 223 in New York City’s South Bronx realized that art classes were a big draw, they began to schedule them on Mondays and Fridays, when attendance was typically lower. Attendance went up immediately, says principal Ramon Gonzalez. More than that: “Once we got the students engaged and feeling confident in art, we were able to use that as a bridge to build engagement and confidence in other subjects. For example, we see that kids who don’t normally like to talk in classwill discuss their painting or hip-hop routine passionately, and this new skill spills over to other areas.” That’s one reason Gonzalez goes against current practice and eliminates periods of math, English language arts, and other subjects on a rotating basis to make room for 12-week blocks of visual arts, drama, dance, and both instrumental and digital music. “The academics haven’t suffered,” says Gonzalez. “Instead, the whole school has improved.”
Across the country, in Flagstaff, AZ, third-grade teacher Diane Immethun incorporates music into her lessons as part of Keeping Score, a program that trains classroom teachers to enhance learning through music. “I’m not a music teacher, but ever since I began using music, I’ve noticed an immense improvement in my students’ logical thinking, creativity, and writing skills,” says Immethun. “Music enhances their imaginations. I’ll have them listen to Stravinsky’s ‘Rite of Spring’ and make up a story. Their writing is much richer than it was before. Or I’ll use ‘Flight of the Bumblebee’ to teach them how a composer gives a voice to a musical instrument and how that’s similar to the way an author gives a character a voice in a book. It’s a sophisticated concept for third-graders, but music helps them make the connection.”
The Creative Connections Arts Academy, a K-8 charter school in North Highlands, CA, has taken things even further. In addition to providing classes in music, drama, dance, and drawing and painting, the school has integrated the arts into almost all academics. In social studies, students act out plays or create drawings about the people they’re studying; in math, they make the connection between quarter- and half-notes and fractions. In total, students are involved in the arts for a whopping four to six hours each day. “Kids get tired of rote learning, but they never get tired of the arts,” says principal Joe Breault. “We have a wide variety of students, including kids with learning disabilities, but we have no trouble engaging any of them.” And — surprise! — standardized-test scores have risen at all three of these schools (Immethun even warms up her students’ brains on test days by having them sing rounds). “Research might not always be able to prove a direct connection to higher scores, but there’s no doubt that an arts program makes kids better at everything they take on,” says Breault. “It helps them become well-rounded, well-prepared thinkers and citizens of the world — and that should be our main goal.”
Japan Electronics College
- Japan Electronics College in Tokyo was the first Japanese college to offer courses in gaming and CG technology. The school offers two game courses. The two-year game production class concentrates on game programming including graphic design and music. The three-year advanced game programming course offers additional computer graphic and sound engineering classes. As a project, students are required to create their own video game. According to Japan Electronics College, students have been scouted by leading Japanese game companies such as SEGA and Capcom.
HAL College of Technology & Design
- HAL College of Technology & Design with campuses in Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya is the largest specialized training college in the country. It is an institution specializing in technology and design fields including video game design. The school offers classes covering all aspects of game production such as computer graphics, design and planning. It also has close ties to major companies, including Microsoft and Nintendo, which allows students to be in contact with possible future employers. HAL College offers two- and four-year programs as well as weekend and night courses.
Nihon Kogakuin College — Creators College
- Creators College is a branch of Nihon Kogakuin College and is located at two campuses in Kamata and Hachioji. The school’s game creator department specializes in all aspects of video game production including designing, programming, planning and marketing. In the two-year program, students are also taught business skills so that they know how to market themselves to secure a job in the game or IT industry after they graduate. Special courses in Japanese and English are held in the summer to acquaint international students with the school and its culture. Additionally, the rate of foreign student employment after graduation is high.
Arts College Yokohama
- Arts College Yokohama offers a three-year video game course. The game creator course is divided into four subjects — game programmer, game character, game planner and game sound. This ensures that students are knowledgeable in various aspects of the video game industry, opening them up to more job options. The program is small, with only 40 students enrolled at a time and aims to provide a focused and tight-knit environment.
Doing the Work
- Superior creative skills play a key role in the effectiveness of 3-D animators and graphic designers. They must create visual concepts and ideas than can engage and appeal to consumers of their products. These professionals also require strong computer skills and a deep knowledge of design and animation software to formulate ideas and prepare their products. In addition, they need time-management skills to plan their time well and beat tight deadlines. Because graphic designers and 3-D animators may work in teams — especially when working on large projects — they need good communication skills to confer effectively with project staff and clients.
- The main responsibility of 3-D animators is to create virtual objects that can move and rotate like real-life objects in movies, music videos and computer games. In the production of an animated movie, for example, 3-D animators may capture an actor’s movements to create computer generated images, which they can manipulate to make animated scenes. These animators can also manipulate light, texture and color to create 3-D drawings and illustrations for product labels and presentations.
- Graphic designers are responsible for the overall look of a website, ad, magazine or brochure. They might create the images to appear on the front cover of a magazine and select the size, font, color and length of headlines, heading and texts. They might also present statistical data in the form of visual graphs, images and tables. In advertising, graphic designers create designs for company logos and product illustrations.
- Employers of graphic designers and 3-D animators prefer candidates with bachelor’s degrees. Aspiring graphic designers can earn bachelor’s degrees in graphic, computer or multimedia design, while 3-D animators can secure bachelor’s degrees in 3-D animation or closely-related fields. Individuals with degrees in other disciplines, such as education, can pursue certificate programs in graphic design or animation to enter these professions. A master’s degree in fine arts, combined with vast work experience and a strong portfolio, can help 3D animators and graphic designers secure large and high profile projects and break into multimedia management positions.
- Analog art is any art where the material making the art is manipulated by hand, like paint. You can control any portion of it. Digital is constituted of many individual pieces of electronic information–such as pixels, in the case of digital photography–which cannot be further broken down.
Analog Art Forms
- Painting, sculpture, printmaking from ink and film photography are considered analog. These are the traditional fine arts, made from tangible materials that are manipulated by hand or with simple tools
Digital Art Forms
- Online art and digital photography are digital art forms. More and more artists are incorporating the web either to make their art or distribute it. Some artworks now only exist as online entities, and have no physical presence except for what you see on the computer screen.
Combining Digital and Analog
- Sometimes digital and analog forms are combined in the creation of a work. For example, a painting done in acrylic is scanned electronically, rendering a digital image, which can be manipulated with a photo editing program. A high-quality
giclee print of the painting can then be printed from digital image. Some giclee prints are printed onto primed canvas to re-create the look of the original painting. Many artists use computer tools to either capture or create images which are then produced in analog form.
Documentation and Distribution
- Artists used to have to take slides of their artwork using film cameras. This entailed shooting (and often reshooting) artworks and distributing individual slides, which were seldom projected. Digital photography makes it easier to get high-quality images and distribute them to galleries or place them online for viewing.
Making a graffiti stencil is a great way to quickly deploy bold, graphic images. Like other graffiti techniques, graffiti stencils are generally used with spray paint. It’s relatively easy to get started with graffiti stencils regardless of your level of artistic skill. Besides spraying walls, you can use your stencils to create custom clothing, patches, posters and mixed media art.
Start with a generously sized piece of lightweight cardboard. This project is a great way to reuse old record covers or cereal boxes, for example.
Adrián González de la Peña/Demand Media
Draw the general outline of the image you would like to stencil on the blank side of the cardboard. Alternatively, glue a photocopied or printed image you would like to stencil onto the cardboard instead.
Adrián González de la Peña/Demand Media
Use pencil lines to break the image up into individual pieces that can be cut out without destroying the image. For example, if you want to stencil the letter “o”, you can’t just cut around the outer circle, or you’ll lose the inner circle. You need to break your “o” (or whatever the shape is) into two or more smaller pieces that can be removed individually, leaving thin strips in between to hold the rest of the image in place.
Adrián González de la Peña/Demand Media
Place the cardboard on the heavier cardboard or cutting mat to protect your work surface, then use the craft knife to carefully cut out and remove the pieces you drew and create your graffiti stencil.
- Move the body into a refrigeration unit. The colder the body is, the slower decomposition will be. This will make it more difficult for bacteria to cultivate.
- Place absorbent padding at each of the orifices of the body to prevent seepage.
- Wash the body with soap and water to remove any dirt or grease. Spray disinfectant around the eyes, nose and mouth, as these areas tend to decay first.
- Pour embalming fluid (such as formaldehyde) into an embalming machine and hook up the machine to the body. Inject the intake tube into the carotid artery in the neck and the outtake tube into the jugular vein.
- Run the embalming machine to remove blood from the body and replace it with the embalming fluid. The fluid makes it harder for bacteria to grow in the body and break it down.
- Insert the trocar (a long metal tube, plastic hose combination) into the body to the left of the belly button of the body. The trocar should be connected to a hydroaspirator. Turn on the hydroaspirator to suck moisture out from the major organs in the body. Move it around through the initial puncture to find the kidneys, spleen, and other organs. Once they are drained, reverse the flow of the hydroaspirator to pump more embalming fluids into the organs.
- Seal the puncture from the trocar with cotton.and dress the body as needed.
- Click the line tool and set the pixel size to 4. Click the circle on the middle left section of the the screen and create a small (1-inch diameter or less) dot for the vanishing point of the illustration. This will allow you to create a 3-D kitchen using single point perspective. Draw a rectangle around the perspective point so that the dot is in the upper right corner for the back wall. Click the line tool on the upper right-hand corner and drag it to the upper right hand corner to create a ceiling line. Click on the bottom right-hand corner of the back wall rectangle and drag this to bottom right corner of the screen to create the bottom of the right wall.
- Click the line tool inside the dot and drag the tool diagonally to the upper right to create the top of the cupboard. Click and drag another line just under this to create the bottom front edge of the cupboard. Click on the top cupboard line halfway up the line and drag a vertical line down to connect to the bottom front edge of the cupboard. This will create the end of the cupboard.
- Click in the bottom left corner of the cupboard and drag a horizontal line across the screen to the right to create the bottom of the cupboards. Click inside the dot and drag two lines going diagonally to the bottom right corner of the screen to create the top of the oven and kitchen counter. Click inside the dot and drag a line down and to the right so it goes off the middle bottom right of the screen. This will create the bottom of the kitchen counters and oven. Draw a rectangle with your line tool to the left of the perspective point to create the refrigerator. Click on the upper right and bottom right corner of the refrigerator and drag a line from each corner into the perspective point.
- Click on the line denoting the front edge of the kitchen counter, directly to the left of the back wall. Drag a line horizontally to the right until you hit the back edge of the kitchen counter. Click at the same point where the horizontal line was started and drag a vertical line down from this point to the bottom edge of the kitchen counter. This will create the back corner of the kitchen counter.
- Add three vertical lines inside the cupboards to create the separate cupboard doors. Click inside the dot and drag a diagonal line that is between the bottom of the cupboard and the top back of the kitchen counter. Add four vertical lines, one near the end of the counters, two grouped close together near the bottom right of the screen to create the top right section of the oven, and one in between to show the left end of the oven. Add two perpendicular horizontal lines to create the right side edge, and then two more perpendicular vertical lines to show the rest of the right side edge of the stove. Repeat this on the left end of the stove.
- Add the handles to the refrigerator and cupboards with small rectangles that you create with vertical lines. Add the cabinets to the kitchen counter with two diagonal rectangles under the right side of the kitchen counter. Click on the square brush for the eraser and set the size to 25 pixels. Erase all the overlapping or unnecessary perspective lines you used to create the cupboards, oven, refrigerator and kitchen counter.
- Use the paint bucket tool to add color or shading to the picture. Click on the color you would like and dump this on the area you want colored. Create shadows by choosing a color two shades darker and dumping that on the underside or side areas of the object. Save the image as a Jpeg at maximum resolution. You can take this design to an architect or interior designer, and they will help you bring the design to life.
If you’re an artist, you know that spreading the word about your work runs a close second in importance to all the effort you put into your art to begin with. Even if creating fulfills you, there’s nothing like sharing the fruits of your efforts with others who may come to love it, and to get compensated for your labor of love.
Luckily, the age of the Internet has introduced a number of opportunities to put your work out there. While there are large e-commerce sites such as Etsy, there are also a growing number of sophisticated online galleries that attract fine art lovers, makers and collectors.
Here’s a selection of some of the online fine art gallery options currently out there for sharing and selling your artwork:
- Fineartamerica.com: This site allows for the purchase and sale of art around the world. It targets both photographers and visual artists, as well as galleries that want to sell pieces online. Images can be sold in the form of originals, prints, greeting cards, and even smartphone cases, with added marketing opportunities. The site is royalty-free. You set your price. Standard accounts are free, but premium accounts are $30 per year, which offers a range of additional features and tools. If someone purchases one of your prints and has it matted and framed using the service, you get a 5% commission.
- UGallery.com: This site allows for the sale of artwork, splitting the sales 50/50 with the artist. Regardless of whether or not the artist is invited to exhibit, there is a $5 application fee. To sell through this website, artists must hand over exclusive selling rights to UGallery. The cost to the artist appears to be 50 percent of the sales and the $5 application fee.
- Ebsqart.com: This site provides links to a range of sites where the artist’s work can be shown, in addition to public and private forums to obtain answers to questions as well as advice. The cost for participation in this site starts at $6.50 per month, but a permanent account can be purchased for $499.
- AmericanFrame.com: These galleries are free and artists are offered an unlimited number of image uploads per gallery. Galleries can be marked private by the artist, or marked public for viewing by anyone. Buyers can purchase the expertly printed piece and can choose to have it shipped to them with or without a custom frame. The artist sets the per-image fee for the artwork, and the artist received 100% of that fee with each sale. The site also provides additional opportunities for exposure with its monthly Featured Artist Contest and social sharing now available through each artist gallery which is optimized for Google search. Each uploaded image for the featured artist contest is manually viewed and approved by an American Frame team member. Features are being constantly added to improve the artist’s experience.
Choosing the right gallery can make a big difference in an artist’s ability to obtain the exposure that is needed to sell the pieces, and to receive the most fair price, possible for his or her artwork. This is a choice that must be carefully made, and many different factors – from storage to fees and royalties – must be considered along the way.
Laura Jajko is President of Marketing at AmericanFrame.com, the nation’s leading online source for custom frames, mat board, archival digital printing services and picture framing supplies. For inspiring picture framing and design ideas, visit her blog, A Good Frame of Mind; and join her on Twitter @laurajajko and .
- Theater has stage venues such as in a play house, whereas films are played anywhere with a screen or projector. Theater holds a deeper connection between the audience and actors because the audience is seeing the character’s story happen right in front of them as if peeking into the actual life of a stranger. Cinema is limited to a two-dimensional screen and has more distraction from the actual characters through things like different camera angles, special effects or scenery shots.
- The presentation itself is very different between the two. Theater occurs live in front of an audience. Cinema is recorded and two-dimensional. With a prerecorded medium, the audience can expect the same piece of art over and over, whereas in theater the live art can differ each time. Theater, however is limited to what can be portrayed on a stage. While you can have many different sets and lighting, you can not use many different locations and angles as cinema can.
- With plays actors and behind-the-scenes crews work together to prepare and put on each performance to ensure the front and backstage flow well. For example when an actor on stage is waiting for a light cue or musical cue from the backstage. In cinema there are different departments such as actors, special effects and musical composers who work separately and may never interact, and in the end editors will bring all the different crews’ work together.
- The origins of each medium are very different, and the lengths of time they have existed are also different. Theater can be traced back to ancient Grecian times and began as a religious medium. Cinema originated amid technological advances in the early 1900s, when pictures were captured on cameras and then turned into films. Cinema has seen rapid growth since it’s origins, whereas theater has stayed relatively close to its original performance-style medium, although stage lighting and sets have evolved.
Things to Consider When Choosing a Wedding Band There is so much to consider as a couple when planning for a wedding. One thing that stands out during the preparations however is the need for good music for the reception party. Sadly though, even with prior knowledge of how crucial this is most couples end up rushing through the choice in the last minutes of wedding preparations thus making poor choices that interfere with the celebration. To avoid having such a scenario and instead offer cool music for the wedding you will have to consider several factors as mentioned below. Find out if the band has a list of songs from which you can select Most bands give their clients no chance to decide on the type of songs to play on their day. Contrary to their advertising, most of these bands want to be in control and will manipulate the songs as they deem fit. To avoid such occurrences it helps to understand beforehand how much you will be involved in the entire process. Start by sending a possible playlist preference via email and wait for the band’s response before making any agreements.
5 Key Takeaways on the Road to Dominating Bands
Does the band play music between sets?
What Almost No One Knows About Music
Having to hire both a DJ and live band can be a very costly affair yet you must have someone play cool music at your wedding event. It is important to find a band that is willing to cover all sessions of the wedding. Pay attention when hiring a band since not all bands will be willing to offer extra services freely. One thing you can be sure of is uncompromising music quality therefore leaving you with a task of researching on a band that is affordable and available. Special first song The common thing in most wedding is to have a special first song for the newlyweds to dance. Make sure the band you are hiring is willing to learn and play your special song. For couples who do not have any special songs finding a kind band to offer suggestions and learn a new song without extra charges would be a great idea. Time that the band has been in existence Before you hire a wedding band, make sure you are convinced of their expertise. Familiarity around these events is a key consideration. Make sure that you are comfortable with how the band organizes its music for the day. Choosing to go with a band for your wedding can be a great idea if you make the right choice.
Christian Music Inspires Body and Soul People write Gospel or Christian music so that they can express their sentiments and ideas about the Christian life.Nowadays gospel music has become a part of the mainstream music industry and is also becoming very popular.Although there are differences when it comes to creation, performance, and significance in different parts of society, the core of the music has not been lost. When Christian music is played, it is primarily for religious worship or religious ceremonies, then it can also be used for aesthetic purposes at the same time for entertainment purposes. But despite all the difference, the common theme of Christian music is not lost and that is to worship and praise God, Christ and the Holy Spirit, and this is the reason why this form of music inspires both body and soul. This type of music is very diverse but it continues to inspire the body and soul.Urban contemporary music, Southern gospel, traditional gospel music, and contemporary music are just some of the subgenres of what is known as Christian music.Christian music is known to use chorus or refrain very frequently, and this makes the music unique. A lot of people believe that Christian music inspires both body and soul.With this kind of music, the brain is stimulated and helps the body to relax so that one can enjoy the moment and forget about the day’s troubles. When listening to Christian music you mind and emotions are stimulated so as to help you express your creative sensitivity. There are two factors responsible for gospel music’s influences in the human mind and emotions.A lot of people are soothed with gospel music melodies and its helps their body relax and helps them in sleeping. Experts say that listening to gospel music is like having an inspiration sound bath that helps you to be calm and rested.This type of music can help people when they live with a high level of stress each day.
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But of course it depends on the type of gospel music that you listen to.Christian music resembling rock music will not give you that calm spirit but instead it can make you more tense and more awake.Christian music with slow tempo can have a sedative effect and will calm a person and perhaps put him to sleep. Another advantage of listening to gospel music has to do with people with body and mind issues like those with psychiatric disorders, physical handicap, and those suffering from sensory impairment, developmental disabilities, and substance abuse. Because of their inspiring lyrics, Christian music has brought healing to people that cannot be received from contemporary music. The message of God and His Words are brought forth in gospel music and is the main reason for its calming effect to the soul that no other kind of music can achieve.What I Can Teach You About Bands
If you’ve ever spread frosting on a cake, you have an idea of the textural possibilities when using a painting knife to create an oil painting. Different from painting with a brush, this process can help you achieve a variety of effects, from the sweeping strokes associated with impasto to refined details.
Painting Knife or Palette Knife?
The terms painting knife and palette knife are often used interchangeably when describing the technique of applying paint to a surface with the blade of an artist’s knife. Both tools are made of either plastic or of wood and metal. Both are available in a variety of blade shapes and sizes. A palette knife handle is generally straight, having at most a slight bend. The purpose of the palette knife is to mix colors or clean the surface of the palette. On the other hand, a painting knife has a deep bend in the handle that keeps the artist’s knuckles out of the paint. As its name indicates, a painting knife is used for actual painting. For the remainder of this article, when I use the word knife, I’m referring to a painting knife.
A knife with a metal blade has more spring to it than one with a plastic blade. Both metal and plastic blades have rather dull edges, and although some blades have a sharp point, a painting knife isn’t so much a cutting tool as it is a spreading tool.
Choose a painting knife for its shape, as different shapes will create a variety of effects. The way you hold the knife, its angle to the board, the amount of paint on the blade and the direction you pull it through the paint or drag it on the surface all add to the painterly options and effects available to you.
Surface and Paint Consistency
I’ve found that the painting surface for a piece done with knives must be firm to prevent the paint from cracking as it dries. Ampersand Gessobord works well, and there are many other suitable surfaces on the market.
I begin my painting knife pieces with an underpainting done in oil thinned with an odorless paint thinner, such as Gamblin Gamsol, and applied with a No. 10 or 12 bristle brush. With broad, loose strokes, I cover the white of the board, establishing color and value. The values of the underpainting are often a bit darker than those I anticipate using for the finished painting because light over dark yields a more desirable result. Because some areas of the underpainting will be visible in the finished painting, I choose underpainting colors that are analogous (near each other on the color wheel) to final-layer colors.
When painting with knives, mix your colors on a palette, but don’t add any medium that will thin the paint. You need the paint to be thick so that it will maintain its shape and stay where it’s put.
Wielding the Painting Knife
Apply paint with a knife as you would spread frosting on a cake—working the texture to achieve the desired thickness and swirls. I hold the knife as a conductor would hold a baton and change the angle of the knife to the board to achieve the desired effect.
A clean palette knife is essential when changing colors. To remove paint from the blade, simply wipe it with a clean cloth or paper towel.
Carefully inspect the painting knife after each stroke once paint has begun to accumulate on the board. Nothing is more frustrating than making a mark in the water area, for example, and realizing that dark green from the tree area was on the knife.
Choosing the Painting Knife Size
Smooth, relatively flat areas can be painted with a large blade, so the larger painting knife in my collection is used for laying in large areas of paint—water or sky, for example (C, page 25).
Used on its edge, the midsized blade creates effects like reflections, masses of trees or thin lines that add texture and detail.
I can also dip the small, rounded tip of this blade into paint, which I can then carefully apply to create details. I use my smallest knife for small edges in trees or other details. Occasionally I use a knife with a ¼-inch square tip for making a mark that could be a distant building or window. The corners of the blade are also excellent for creating fine detail.
Keep in mind that you can use painting-knife techniques with other paint applicators. Cutting expired credit cards into different-sized strips lets you create custom shapes for applying paint. For large areas, try a metal or plastic ruler.
Sgraffito and Scumbling
In order to give an edge between the sky and trees a varied, atmospheric appearance that suggests distance, use the edge of a clean painting knife held at a 45-degree angle from the surface of the board. Connect the sky to the trees with up-and-down strokes of the knife, allowing it to gently touch the paint in the sky and in the trees. These strokes exemplify the technique of sgraffito, gently scraping the surface of the board to expose some of the early underpainting and blend a bit of the two areas.
The goal of the sgraffito is to keep this edge soft; remember that trees are a rounded mass going back into the distance. This technique can be tricky; there’s nothing about this particular part of the process that resembles spreading frosting. The movement of a painting knife through the paint will result in some serendipitous painterly strokes. Work carefully as the top edge of a tree mass is created, making some edges more pronounced; others soft.
With a clean palette knife, you can use the technique of scumbling by pulling a bit of paint from the sky into the trees or some paint in the trees closer to the sky. You can also use scumbling to create “sky holes” within tree branches.
As your paint begins to dry, a “skin” forms that will pull and drag as another layer of paint is applied, often creating an undesirable effect. When a painting session is finished, ridges in the paint must be neither disturbed nor covered with more paint until the drying process is further along.
Completed paintings done with relatively thick paint must be allowed to dry for six months or more. The surface of the paint dries to the touch more quickly, but closer examination will reveal soft inner layers that can be easily damaged. I recommend applying a finishing varnish after many months—up to a year if the paint is quite thick.
- Being part of a play shows children that there are people who appreciate them. Theater helps build up self-esteem with each round of applause the performers receive.
- Public speaking can be a huge problem for someone too shy or someone who lacks confidence. Being part of the theater can help a child to move past her shyness and develop proper public speaking skills.
- Theater brings out a child’s creativity in a way that no sport can. This newly discovered creativity can help improve a child’s reading and math skills by teaching her to open up her mind. If a child is playing a math whiz, she may become more interested in math as part of her research and characterization.
- Being part of a theater program is a great way to teach a child about commitment. When a child is involved in the production of a play, he’ll realize that there are many others who are depending on him. He has duties that must be fulfilled, or he will let his co-stars and co-workers down.
- Theater requires a lot of dedication. A child must learn his lines and memorize stage blocking. Dedication is an important skill that is always used in the real world. Children learn this the moment they participate in a play production.
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- Practice and create new artwork constantly. Learn new graffiti techniques and use new products at all times.
- Photograph your work. Keep an archive of each piece you complete and store it digitally on a hard drive. Use this this archive to build a portfolio to show potential sponsors.
- Create works on canvas. Selling individual works to art collectors is just one way to get your name out to the public. It also paves the way for future art exhibitions.
- Participate in art shows. Start by submitting artwork to group exhibitions, and appeal to local independent galleries to organize a solo show. Call up coffee shops and street wear shops — the types of places that support the local art scene- – and make a deal with them to hang your work on their walls.
- Promote yourself. Get the word out about every exhibition or large-scale project you’re involved in. Set up a Facebook page, Twitter account and online portfolio. Use these platforms to inform followers of the latest developments in your graffiti career.
- List the ways you can enhance a company’s brand, and ways they can help you at the same time. A graffiti artist sponsored by a paint company will sometimes do live painting demonstrations at skateboarding competitions, while one sponsored by a clothing company might contribute to clothing designs. In return, most artists will get money, products and exposure.
- Appeal to brands. Research some fashion and spray paint brands that you know and like. Write and send query letters to those brands, directing them to your portfolio and stating why they should sponsor you as a graffiti artist.
- Befriend local graffiti artists that have sponsorship and learn the ropes from them. Once you have interest in your work, you will need guidance in negotiating deals and contracts.
- Continue with your personal graffiti practice. Brand sponsors may restrict your creativity in some ways, so it’s up to you to progress and experiment with your own art.
- Decide on what you want to make. A building has slightly different requirements than a dinosaur skeleton.
- Use a photograph to analyze what you want to make from every side and angle if possible.
- Draw a scale image of every visible (exterior) part on graphing paper—for a house, draw the outer walls, roof and chimney; for a dinosaur, draw each tiny bone. Make sure your measurements are accurate and consistent so that each piece will fit together.
- Cut out the shapes of every section you have drawn. Don’t forget to cut out something to mount them on if necessary. For example, your dinosaur will need an appropriately sized spine to hold each rib and vertebra.
- Lay out your pieces all together and in order so that you can see what goes where. Build from the inside out—for a house, start with the inside of the house, move to the roof, and then finish with the exterior walls; for a dinosaur, start with the internal bone structure and build onto it while moving out so that you end with the extremities and the head.
- Use a quick drying glue that will still allow enough time for correcting any possible mistakes. Modeling glue is ideal.
- A musical has three parts which are the book, music and lyrics. The book refers to the words that the characters say, while lyrics are words that the characters sing. The book and lyrics together are called the libretto. The lyrics and the music together are called the score. Usually, these parts are written by different people. For example, the music for Oklahoma was written by Richard Rogers and the book and lyrics were written by Oscar Hammerstein II.
- Early American musical theater had a strong European influence. In addition to European operettas, American musical theater has roots in vaudeville and burlesque. After the turn of the 20th century, George M. Cohan wrote the first true American musicals. According to the website Theatre History, “Not only were the settings and characters of Cohan’s musicals thoroughly American, but his dialogue, lyrics and melody were colloquial and native. The spirit of brashness, cocksureness, energy and chauvinism that pervaded the Cohan musicals were unmistakably American.”
- All American musical theater was comedy until Hammerstein and Kern wrote a musical play, Show Boat, which had much more serious themes. Today, artists write both musical comedies and musical plays. Recent examples of musical comedies are Avenue Q and Spamalot while examples of more serious musical plays are Next to Normal and Spring Awakening.
- Broadway musicals serve many purposes. Musicals are an artistic expression of the composer, lyricist, set designer, costumer, director, choreographer and actors. They offer unique forms of communication that entertain audiences. Some musicals challenge political or cultural assumptions. Certain musicals serve as a record of various time periods in American history. Musicals that are available for schools to perform can be used as educational tools.
- The most famous and popular American musicals are performed on Broadway for years. For example, Cats opened on October 7, 1982 and closed on September 10, 2000. As of 2010, Playbill reported that the longest running shows in American musical theater history include The Phantom of the Opera, Les Miserables, Chicago, Beauty and the Beast, Rent, The Lion King, Miss Saigon and 42nd Street.
MJ Murdock Charitable Trust
- One of the areas of interest to the MJ Murdock Charitable Trust is arts and culture. The focus when awarding grants for this topic are projects that enrich a cultural environment. The Rialto Community Theater located in Deer Lodge, Montana, was awarded a $300,00 grant from the MJ Murdock Charitable Trust specifically to renovate the theater. Although the Trust’s focus is not solely theater renovations, it is obvious that its priorities include this type of project. The Trust reports that about half of the grants and awards they make are given to capital improvement projects.
MJ Murdoch Charitable Trust
703 Broadway, Suite 710
Vancouver, WA 98660
National Endowment For the Arts
- The National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) includes assistance for theater renovations under their Design Arts Program. Its funding includes feasibility plans for adaptive reuse, restoration and renovation. Funding can also be obtained for theaters involved in the revitalization of cultural districts. Money is available for the planning of theater renovations but not actual construction materials and costs. Apply for grant money for historic preservation, urban and architectural studies and design planning through the NEA topic of “Design.”
National Endowment for the Arts
1100 Pennsylvania Ave. NW
Save America’s Treasures
- Offered through the National Parks Service, the Save America’s Treasures Grant Program includes theaters of historical significance. The program is a federal matching grant program designed to fund restoration projects across America. Matching programs require a two-part award—the grant funds a dollar amount and the theater project committee must locate a non-Federal match for funding. Theaters must have historical significance to qualify. See the National Park Service program details for further information on applying.
- The oldest form of modern day graffiti comes from Ancient Greece, and is thought to be an ad for prostitution. The ancient Romans and Egyptians also practiced graffiti on tombs, monoliths and other constructions. Mayans and Vikings also had graffiti art in their cultures. As time went on and passed into the Renaissance period, many famous artists emerged. Even those such as Donatello or Da Vinci would graffiti their names where they went. Graffiti continued in future cultures, with many invading armies painting or carving it in the walls of places they occupied. Modern graffiti artists have used the form to express themselves, their political or religious beliefs, or simply to make a mark.
- The United States is thought to be the home of the modern graffiti movement. It began in New York City in the 1970s and spread from there. Brazilians emulated this graffiti in their own work, which is thought to be some of the best in the world, with many powerful artists coming out of Sao Paolo in particular. In the Middle East, graffiti has a short history. It has been growing since the 1990s in Iran, Iraq and Israel. In particular, the Israeli West Bank wall has become a major site for graffiti.
- During ancient times, graffiti functioned as a simple way to alert people of the presence of underground areas or illegal activity. It was also used to mark religious symbols on holy places in a city. During the Renaissance and the years following, it was used as a sort of “I was here” marker for famous artists and invaders, and it was less of an art form. Modern graffiti is colorful, artful and often has a message behind it, which can be just about anything.
- Graffiti of the past was much simpler than modern graffiti. It did not use many colors and was often comprised of simple shapes, though one or may have been drawn into each other. Sometimes, the graffiti was simply a name. Modern graffiti may be only a name as well, or a code name for the arts (called a tag), but it often incorporates many colors and is larger than ancient graffiti. Still, in whatever form it comes, graffiti can be recognized as vandal art.
- The most recent history of graffiti has seen the art beginning to blend into pop culture and mainstream audiences. It is highly linked to hip hop cultures, as well as the “MTV culture” as some call it. In the late 1990s, graffiti has even been encouraged by some places, which may give artists a wall to paint on and practice their art. This shows that the future of graffiti art may lean less towards and vandalism and more towards artistic expression. However, this worries purists, since the definition of graffiti makes it an illegal art form.
- Almost all 3-D design techniques incorporate four fundamental processes while interpreting an object electronically in its three dimensions: modeling, layout designing, animation and rendering. Modeling in 3-D designs is referred to the interpretation and development of basic object shape, while layout designing deals with the placement of an object within a suitable background. Similarly, the process of animation deals with any movement or motion associated with the object, and rendering defines angling and positioning of the light source within the design.
- Three-dimensional designs are usually developed on electronic interfaces, such as computers or other image/video processing machines, using some specially developed common software applications like Photoshop, AutoCAD, Flash, 3-D Studio Max and Maya. Upon development, these designs can be viewed electronically or in the form of printed 3-D objects.
- Purchase your Fimo nail designs online; there are several websites that sell this type of nail art. Some require you to slice the designs yourself, while others are pre-sliced for your convenience. The four-inch cane-slicing blade can be purchased from most craft retailers.
- Slice your Fimo designs with the cane-slicing blade, if you purchased the designs in roll form. Slice the roll as thin as possible, so the design does not extrude too far off your nail’s surface.
- Apply a layer of base coat nail polish to each of your fingernails. Make sure the coat is thin, so it won’t clump up.
- Affix the Fimo nail design to your fingernail carefully, pressing the design into the still-wet layer of nail polish. You might need to use tweezers for accuracy, as the Fimo nail designs are incredibly small.
- Repeat Steps 3 and 4 on the rest of your fingernails. Allow the designs to dry to the nail for about 60 seconds.
- Apply a thin layer of top coat over each of your fingernails to seal in the designs.
- Design your child’s wall mural. You can draw your own design, or make photocopies from your favorite book.
- Turn that design into a transparency that you place on an overhead projector.
- Use the overhead projector to trace the mural onto the wall. You can sometimes borrow an overhead projector from your local library.
- Paint your child’s wall mural according to the colors and designs you select for your design.
- Determine which items you can make three-dimensional. Large-scale items in the mural, like a sky, don’t always make the best 3D objects because of their size. However, smaller items like trees, vehicles, fish and flowers work well.
- Shop for 3D elements you can add to the space. Some companies, such as rondo, sell soft, thick foam with a self-adhesive backing that you can peel and stick to your wall for a 3D effect.
- Cut your own 3D elements if desired. Using any type of wood, draw the design of your 3D item onto the piece of wood and cut it out with a jigsaw. If you need help drawing the item onto the wood, use your overhead projector and a transparency of your drawing. Paint the wood according to your design.
- Think about other opportunities to add 3D elements to a children’s wall mural. If you have an underwater mural, consider using felt as the water and adding Velcro fish to the felt. You can use crepe paper to make trees and vines in a jungle room. You can even use green fringe on your wall to look like grass.
- Secure your 3D elements to the wall. Use wood screws to secure wooden 3D elements; use staples for paper, fringe and Velcro. If your 3D item comes with a self-adhesive backing or tools to install the item to the wall, read the manufacturer’s recommended installation instructions.
Key Considerations when Renting a Car Service in New York City New York is one of the cities in the United States that is perfect for travelers due to several great places. These comprise the famous Empire State Building, Central Park, Times Square, radio city hall, and numerous restaurants, theaters, night clubs, sports facilities, and recreation spots. However, you ought to hire a car for you to easily get to these areas. Having a car service will enable you to take pleasure in your travel around the city. Car service in New York City offers two choices. You can either hire a car and drive all alone, which is cheaper, or take on a chauffeur driven car. You can easily get from one point to another using the service but once you are new in the city, you can actually get lost. What you can do is to take on a NY car service that will drive you to your hotel, take care of your luggage, and move you around the city without any trouble. When you think you are good on maps and directions, you could take a car from the service provider and have your own way. However, there will be another challenge because there are several options with NY Car service. You have to search a bit first so you can get better prices and know the company reputations, policies and car conditions. Once you will hire one with a chauffeur, you will be aware of its company safety records so you are guaranteed that the drivers are safe and you and your family are safe as well.
Doing Options The Right Way
You must be familiar with the charges of the NY car service company when you are late, on hourly basis, or for one whole day. Consider the gas charges as well that can different from one company to another. Some companies give a full tank, which you need to return fully fueled unless you pay charges. Others will allow you to purchase your own fuel.
A 10-Point Plan for Cars (Without Being Overwhelmed)
You must take advantage of weekend specials and lower price offers especially if you need a chauffeur. This is much better than travelling in buses and taxis since fare is normally comparable to cars driven by chauffeurs. It is also expensive to hire airport car service because the companies still have to pay to the airport and these fees are added into your fare. You will observe that the majority of agencies have large cars that can accommodate business travels. When you go for a smaller car, some agencies will frequently give you a package where your car is upgraded to a bigger one. It is not tough to hire NY car service on the condition that you select the right one to make your trip memorable. You can check online to see a number of choices and get the right one for your needs. You will be amazed to discover several services that provide affordable prices and better experience.
The ancient Greeks developed notions of ideal proportions and mathematics, which they applied to sculpture and architecture. The Parthenon, for example, contains a number of careful mathematical and optical refinements. The importance of mathematics and proportion to Greek architects finds an echo in the work of Greek sculptors, who composed human figures according to idealized proportions of human anatomy. For the Greeks, sculpture, painting and architecture were much closer disciplines than they are in the modern era–hence art historians of Ancient Greek art consider architecture as part of art.
The Classical Greeks thus developed tools for measurement and alignment in order to create these subtle mathematical and architectural refinements.
- The Classical Greeks used a relatively basic form of architecture known as “post-and-lintel” construction. Post-and-lintel refers to how an architectural structure supports weight–in Greek architecture and other ancient cultures, two vertical posts supported a horizontal lintel, somewhat like a doorway.
Post-and-lintel construction cannot support much weight–if there is too much pressure over the middle of the lintel, the lintel will break. Thus the Greeks used colonnades, series of columns to support the weight of the roof.
Examples of post-and-lintel construction in Classical Greek architecture include the Doric Temples at Paestum, the Temple of Artemis in Corfu and the Parthenon. The Parthenon includes two colonnades: the exterior is ringed of columns, while the interior room, or “cella,” has columns at the front and back.
Architectural Orders and Proportions
- There are two types of Classical Greek orders: Doric and Ionic. Doric is simpler and generally squatter–the proportions of column diameter to column height are 7:1. Ionic columns are longer (the column proportions are 9:1), and the top is capped by a scroll-shaped capital called a volute. The Propylaia of the Acropolis in Athens, by the architect Mnesikles is an example of the Ionic order (the Parthenon's exterior is Doric).
The Corinthian order developed during the Late Classical period, which is very similar to the Ionic but has a capital carved a bundle of acanthus leaves instead of a volute.
The proportions of each Greek architectural order echo the importance of proportions in Classical Greek figural sculpture. As Galen remarked on Polykleitos' Doryphoros (Spearbearer) from 450-440 BCE: “[Doryphoros] holds beauty to consist not in the commensurability or “symmetria” [ie., proportions] of the constituent elements [of the body], but in the commensurability of the parts, such as that of finger to finger, and of all the fingers to the palm and wrist, and of those to the forearm, and of the forearm to the upper arm, and in fact, of everything to everything else, just as it is written in the Canon of Polyclitus.”
- Greek measuring units were also based on human body parts. The “dactylos,” for example, is the breadth of one finger.
Greek mathematicians developed sophisticated tools for measuring large objects (even astronomical distances) and surveying tools–though Greeks recorded the development and use of these tools, their exact nature is not always known to modern scholars. Nevertheless, such tools assisted in the construction of Greek architectural marvels like the Parthenon, where the Greeks measured, cut and carved the elements of the building before erecting them with levers and pulleys.
- The Athenians of the Golden Age (also known as the Age of Pericles) used Pentelic marble–marble collected from Mt. Pentelikon, somewhat northeast of Athens. Pentelic marble is white with a hint of yellow (which makes the material glow warmly in the sun), and without streaks.
Pentelic marble is a particularly hard type of marble, and the Greeks often used harder tools for marble carving than later cultures used.
- Greek sculptors mainly used the hammer and chisel to carve out the basic forms of a sculpture. A chisel is metal bar with a sharp edge and the sculptor hammers the chisel to carve stone.
However, hammer and chisel leave a rough surface, so the Greek sculptor would smooth with an abrasive emery stone to create the smooth curves that Greek sculptors are so famous for. After sanding, the sculptor used a slightly softer stone to add polish, also called a patina.
Some Classical Greek sculptors also treated their works with a sealing compound to create a glowing effect (this process was called “ganosis”).
The classical sculptor Praxiteles first used the “smoky” style endowed by ganosis. Praxiteles wanted to create soft lights and shadows that flowed along the contours of his figural sculptures.
- Outside of marble sculptural decorations for architecture (like the Acropolis of Athens), the Greeks created many bronze sculptures. Many Greek bronzes are lost, as later civilizations melted them down to reuse the metal in times of war. A few bronzes lost in shipwrecks and recovered during the modern era stand in museums.
The Ancient Greeks used the “indirect lost-wax” technique for bronze casting. Many cultures separately developed the lost-wax process, and it is particularly effective for metal sculptures. The lost-wax process involves a positive and negative mold. The sculptor creates a positive sculpture and then creates a cast (usually of plaster or clay). The positive sculpture is then placed inside the negative mold, with a thin layer of wax between them. Pins hold the positive still inside the negative and the caster applied heat to melt the wax away. The caster then pours bronze, which sets and creates a hollow sculpture.
Society and Family
- The social structure of the Huron, like all member groups in their confederation, was based on extended family groups. Membership in a given clan was based on a matrilineal line of descent. All property was owned by the matrilineal clan, rather than an individual. The typical Huron family group consisted of the entire extended family. All members of the family helped to rear children. At an early age, the family began to teach their children to use the skills they would need as adults.
The government of the Huron as it stood on the eve of the European invasion was a confederation of clans and villages across the Eastern seaboard. Each village was responsible for handling its own individual affairs, but when a concern presented itself that affected the entire confederation, a council would make the decisions. The council consisted of male representatives, or “sachems,” from each of the clans. A given clan was generally made of several villages, connected by a hereditary relationship.
- The Huron spoke the Wyandot language. This was one of the five languages spoken by the Iroquois-Huron family of tribes. The last native speaker of Wyandot died in the 1960s. There are currently efforts underway to revive the language and help to preserve the heritage of the Huron people.
- The Huron religion was based on a belief of many spirits, or Oqui, which inhabit the natural world and have an effect on everyday human existence. Four very important figures appear in the Huron creation story. They are the Aataentsic, who is the mother of all human kind, along with Louskeha, a creative being, and Tawiscaron, who is responsible for death and disease. The fourth figure is the great turtle, who is responsible for rescuing Aataentsic by ordering the fishes to create land on which she can live.
Healing is another important element of Huron culture. Sickness is believed to be both physical and spiritual, and so healers had to be adept at both physical remedies and communication with the spirit world.
Arts, Crafts, and Entertainment
- The Huron’s artistic pursuits frequently coincided with religion. These included ceremonial painting, carving, and mask making. For entertainment, they enjoyed a variety of games and sporting events, including tobogganing and lacrosse.
- The Aztecs worshiped an intricate system of gods and the three most important were Huitzilopochtli, the god of war, Tezcatlipoca, the main god, and Quetzalcoatl, the god of civilization. Most Aztecs believed that the gods must be appeased and would not provide for mankind if mankind did not make sacrifices. Human sacrifice was practiced on a massive scale and also paid tribute to the gods through plays, food offerings and sporting events. The Aztecs believed that every day of the year had one good and one bad god overseeing it. Through a series of complex calculations, using calendars, humans could predict what would occur and how to appease the gods for the best outcome.
Pottery and Sculpture
- The Aztecs used pottery for both practical and religious purposes. The pottery was often adorned with images of the gods and featured hand-painted images. Aztec temples contain elaborate sculptures made in bas-relief that depicted the gods or the images of those selected for human sacrifice. Aztec artisans also created small sculptures of people and animals made from crystals, particularly quartz and also used jade and obsidian. The Aztec calendar was an important part of the civilization’s religious beliefs and they kept both a solar and ritual calendar. The calendars were carved in stone, and circular bands were used to carve and depict the days of the year.
Painting and Writing
- Aztecs created pictographs, which were small paintings that recorded events in the lives and history of the tribe. The tribe maintained scribes who used natural materials such as vegetable oils to make the drawings. Pictographs were also used in the Aztec mathematical system, with paintings of different objects representing specific numbers.
- The Aztecs used masks that depicted important citizens in the community and gods, as well as headdresses in their rituals. Aztec craftsman decorated the headdresses with bird feathers and also used feathers to adorn the clothing of the nobility. Aztec warriors tattooed themselves with designs that represented the achievements of a particular warrior.
- Decide upon an overview for your school's curriculum and write a mission statement. Before you can open your doors to potential students, you must decide exactly what your school is going to teach and what students will gain by attending your school. Traditional university theater programs teach acting, movement for the stage, voice and diction, theater history, and technical arts. Starting with that base framework, you will need to write a course progression that details what skills a student will learn in each segment. For example: In an acting progression, you might see that in Acting 1, a student will learn basic stage presence and work on simple monologues; then, in Acting 2, the student builds on those skills by working on scene study with an acting partner and exploring techniques found in Stanislavsky's “An Actor Prepares.”
While developing your curriculum, you should think ahead to special or advanced classes you may want to include from time to time, such as improvisation, circus arts, acting for the camera or musical theater.
Once you've written a complete course outline, you should then write your mission statement to clearly reflect what students will learn if they attend your school and why they should learn those things.
- Research accreditation and hire teachers. In most states, if you are planning to teach students under the age of majority, you will need either accreditation or special certification by the state government. In many states, teachers also need to be fingerprinted and tested for communicable diseases and drugs before being allowed to work. At the very least, you must ensure that potential teachers have proper training and experience to teach the classes in your curriculum. For example, you don't want someone who has never heard of the Alexander Technique to teach an advanced movement course.
- Name and incorporate your business. You may want to obtain legal advice while doing this, as the regulations for incorporating a small business vary from state to state. You could also visit a legal website (such as Legal Zoom or others), which will walk you through the steps of incorporating your business. The most important thing to establish is whether the business is a non-profit or for-profit. The processes of obtaining business licenses are very different depending upon this designation. If you want to have a non-profit school, you'll need to file for 501(c)(3) status and provide the IRS with documentation of your funding streams.
At this time you'll also want to open a bank account and credit in your school's name.
- Name an advisory board. Before opening your school's doors, you need to pick a select panel of theatrical experts and community members to help guide the school's objectives. The advisory board can be very important for the overall governance of the business, and it is essential to have in place when applying for funding and grants.
- Write a budget. You'll need to include teacher salaries, rent for your school space, renovation costs and operating costs. Detail how much revenue you expect to raise from students and how much is coming from other sources such as investors, grants or gifts.
- Find and rent a space for your school. Large warehouse and old storefront spaces work wonderfully to house theater schools. With a little manpower and DIY effort, you can transform one of these unused spaces into a nice studio space. Remember to install the following important things in your school space: dance flooring, mirrors and perhaps a small, raised stage.
- Advertise your school and recruit students. You can't have a school without students! Once you've completed the above steps, you should be on firm-enough ground to start taking on students and creating class schedules.
- Choose a design that appeals to you. There are patterns available for many different designs that come with full instructions for folding the paper.
- Purchase origami paper. This paper is designed for use in creating origami. It is thin and lightweight and folds easily. It is available in many different sizes and colors, often with each side of the paper a different color.
- Follow the instructions for the design you wish to create. If you are new to origami, it is best to choose a simple design for beginners. Be patient as you learn this new art form. Your skills will develop as your practice folding and creating designs.
- Consider paper mache for creating 3-D art forms out of paper. Paper mache can be used to create elaborate and detailed sculptures and other pieces of art. Although you may think paper mache is just for kids, you are mistaken. Some truly wonderful designs are possible with nothing more than some paper and a little glue and water.
- Shred newspapers into strips 1/2-inch by the length of the paper. These pieces will be used to develop the base of your project.
- Mix plain white school glue with warm water. Add enough glue that the water feels slippery and smooth to the touch. It does not have to be gooey and sticky.
- Soak the paper strips in the glue and water mixture until they are soft and well saturated. Do not leave the strips in the water for long periods as they will dissolve.
- Cover the object you are using for a base to your project with strips of paper mache. Smooth them with your hands to remove and wrinkles or bumps. You can create a base with inflated balloons, chicken wire or any other lightweight material.
- Allow to dry overnight. Add layers to your piece of art by using newspaper and the glue mixture. To build up areas, you can use finely shredded newspapers that have been nearly dissolved in the glue and water mixture. Squeeze out excess water and apply to the area like sculpting material.
- Paint the finished project.
- Choose a design that appeals to you and purchase or download the appropriate patterns and instructions. See the resource section for free patterns for paper models.
- Follow the instructions for creating the 3-D model. These are similar to origami, but are made from multiple pieces and are not folded from one sheet of paper.
- Be patient and don’t get discouraged. Building 3-D paper models is difficult and requires time.
I’ve said it before and I’ll say it again: Art is important because it makes us feel. So when I came across the watercolor paintings I knew I had to share them here. Perhaps we’ll all hear a collective “aw,” as everyone opens this e-mail . . . that’s what I said, at least, when I saw these and the many paintings representing the latest in the Splash: Best of Watercolor series. Scroll down and see which one pulls at your heart the most, and read the descriptions by each artist to further understand their inspiration and/or process.
Meerkat Radar (transparent watercolor on 140-lb. rough Arches, 22×15) by David Rankin
Meerkats are delightful creatures. A ubiquitous feature of theirs is this distinctive posture where they stand around scanning the sky–ever watchful for their deadly nemeses–hawks. I have wildlife artist buddies who paint every strand of hair or fur. But I wanted my meerkats to feel furry–without painting one hair! This illusion of fur was achieved by starting at the top and working downward using very careful blends of beaded washes and pigment into wet brushwork, resulting in smooth fur–with no hairs! The sharp outer edges of their bodies then help define them. This is the magnificence of watercolor!
Distant Relatives (watercolor on hot-pressed archival watercolor board, 18×24) by Kyle Mort
I try to incorporate wit and humor into my paintings. I wanted to present these two bears together in the same space. They are, after all, both bears. The texture of the grizzly was built up by applying layers and layers of drybrush, each strand of fur done one at a time. These guys were meant to meet face-to-face.
Rainy Day (watercolor on 300-lb. cold-pressed Arches, 20×28) by Michael W. Bermel
Rainy Day was painted in the comfort of the warm, dry office of our home, a stark contrast to that magical day my camera captured our children splashing through puddles on the driveway. These photos and my quick crayon sketches supplied the foundation for my painting. Trying to capture the varied textures of nature and synthetic fabrics, I thrashed water over the paper’s surface with an oversized, water-saturated brush. I turned the paper at different angles to blow air at the pooling water, disturbing the semi-dried Winsor & Newton pigment to infuse the piece with movement.
Caring (transparent watercolor on 300-lb cold-pressed Arches, 15×22) by Wen-Cong Wang
Monkeys share a similar family structure as most other primates; the close, loving bond between mother and child is common. I found this wonderful family in a forest reserve and was touched by their affection. This painting was developed in the studio from a sketch and photos taken the same day. I paid special attention to the subject/environment relationship. The initial underpainting of wet-into-wet was a foundation for the tones and colors. For the soft fur, several layers of color were applied for depth and dimension. I gradually developed my piece as a whole while adding values and details. I used a smaller pointed brush to suggest some of the finer details around the monkeys as final touches.
Nike (watercolor with gouache accents on 140-lb cold-pressed Fabriano Artistico, 12×8.5) by Lei Chi
Nike is a shy greyhound we adopted after his career on the race-track. I developed his portrait from a photo taken on his favorite walk. The well-studied drawing is crucial to the painting’s success. Through drawing I became more acquainted with his character and discovered relationships between compositional elements. Layers of transparent washes were used to achieve the desired contrast of light and dark. Splattering paint by rubbing a toothbrush created the texture on the sidewalk. I used white gouache or mixtures of gouache and watercolor for the fur and highlights.
I wish that I could share all of the amazing work that’s found but I hope that this gives you an idea of the high caliber of work within. Published for both art-lovers and practicing artists, you’ll get a glimpse at the painting process from each of the watercolorists featured, all centering around one theme: texture. And so it seems fitting that I’ll leave you with a quote from one of the artists in Splash 16, Cheryle Chapline: “Texture to a painting is like salt to food–each enhances one’s experience of the flavor of the subject.
- Graffiti, as an art form, thrives on confrontation with authority. A city-wide ban in LA would provide the offenders with an opportunity for a confrontation. Establishing graffiti artists as outsiders legitimizes the antagonistic nature of the art and may end up encouraging more artists to join the cause. With high levels of relative poverty, extremely poor areas riddled with drugs and violence in contrast to the wealthy Hollywood megastars, Los Angeles is a hotbed of political and cultural unrest that a ban might exacerbate.
Graffiti as a Social Good
- Graffiti performs a valuable social function, transforming depressed neighborhoods into showcases for urban art. Neglected and crime-ridden areas of L.A. can become the gallery for a very talented group of young artists who might not otherwise have an outlet for their creativity. In addition, graffiti can make informed political statements and draw attention to issues ignored by the mainstream media. The work of artists like United Kingdom-based Banksy isa testament to the power of graffiti to make thought-provoking statements.
Cynical Use of Graffiti
- Some artists and even companies use graffiti as free advertising. While legitimate advertisers have to pay for space, irritating promotions can masquerade as artistic expression. In the commercial world of L.A., this is a particular problem, with enterprising individuals seizing the opportunity to cut advertising costs and tap into a particular market. A ban would therefore limit the opportunities for this kind of abuse.
- While some graffiti might be regarded as artistry, a significant amount qualifies as petty vandalism. Gangs and individuals use spray-painted tags as a way to mark territory or merely to deface pleasant areas of the city. A ban would prevent this practice, and punishments for graffiti such as cleaning up painted areas of the city might help improve the look and feel of dilapidated neighborhoods.
- Open a photo in Photoshop by going to File > Open and click the Browse button to find your picture on your computer.
- Click the Filter menu at the top toolbar, select Stylize, then select Glowing Edges. A Glowing Edges box appears.
- Slide the Edge Width slider bar all the way to the left.
- Slide the Edge Brightness slider bar all the way to the right.
- Slide the Smoothness bar to your preference; the further left you go, the more precise and thin your lines will be. If you slide the bar to the right, you get thicker lines but lose detail. Click the OK button when ready. Your picture now reflects the changes and has a bright, neon graffiti look to it.
- Save your image by going to File > Save As and renaming it so you keep your original photo for further use.
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